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Moubed M.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan | Zare Mehrjerdi Y.,University of Yazd
International Journal of Engineering, Transactions A: Basics | Year: 2016

Inventory routing problems arise as simultaneous decisions in inventory and routing optimization. In the present study, vendor managed inventory is proposed as a collaborative model for reverse supply chains and the optimization problem is modeled in terms of an inventory routing problem. The studied reverse supply chains include several return generators and recovery centers and one collection center. Since the mathematical model is an NP-hard one, finding the exact solution is time consuming and complex. A hybrid heuristic model combining dynamic programming, ant colony optimization and tabu search has been proposed to solve the problem. To confirm the performance of proposed model, solutions are compared with three previous researches. The comparison reveals that the method can significantly decrease costs and solution times. To determine the ant colony parameters, four factors and three levels are selected and the optimized values of parameters are defined by design of experiments. © 2016, Materials and Energy Research Center. All rights reserved.

Esteghamat-Panah R.,Isfahan University of Technology | Hadadzadeh H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Farrokhpour H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Simpson J.,University of Otago | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2017

A new mononuclear rhodium(III) complex, [Rh(bzimpy)Cl3] (bzimpy = 2,6-bis(2-benzimidazolyl)pyridine), was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic methods. The molecular structure of the complex was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The interaction of the complex with fish sperm DNA (FS-DNA) was investigated by UV spectroscopy, emission titration, and viscosity measurement in order to evaluate the possible DNA-binding mode and to calculate the corresponding DNA-binding constant. The results reveal that the Rh(III) complex interacts with DNA through groove binding mode with a binding affinity on the order of 104. In addition, the binding of the Rh(III) complex to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was monitored by UV–Vis and fluorescence emission spectroscopy at different temperatures. The mechanism of the complex interaction was found to be static quenching. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG) obtained from the fluorescence spectroscopy data show that van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds play a major role in the binding of the Rh(III) complex to BSA. For the comparison of the DNA- and BSA-binding affinities of the free bzimpy ligand with its Rh(III) complex, the absorbance titration and fluorescence quenching experiments of the free bzimpy ligand with DNA and BSA were carried out. Competitive experiments using eosin Y and ibuprofen as site markers indicated that the complex was mainly located in the hydrophobic cavity of site I of the protein. These experimental results were confirmed by the results of molecular docking. Finally, the in vitro cytotoxicity properties of the Rh(III) complex against the MCF-7, K562, and HT-29 cell lines were evaluated and compared with those of the free ligand (bzimpy). It was found that the complexation process improved the anticancer activity significantly. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS

Elahifard M.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan | Fazeli E.,Payame Noor University | Joshani A.,Shahid Beheshti University | Gholami M.,Sharif University of Technology
Surface and Interface Analysis | Year: 2013

Direct CO dissociation is seen the main path of the first step in the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) on the reactive iron surfaces. Cu/Fe alloy film is addressed with various applications over face-centered-cubic (fcc)-Cu and body-centered-cubic (bcc)-Fe in the FTS, i.e. preventing iron carbide formation (through direct CO dissociation) by moderating the surface reactivity and facilitating the reduction of iron surfaces, respectively. In this study by density functional theory, the stable configurations of CO molecule on various Cu/Fe alloys over fcc-Cu(100) and bcc-Fe(100) surfaces with different CO coverage (25% and 50%) have been evaluated. Our results showed that the ensemble effect plays a fundamental role to CO adsorption energy on the surface alloys over bcc-Fe(100); on the other hand, the ligand effect determines the CO stability on the fcc-Cu(100) surface alloys. CO dissociation barrier was also calculated on the surface alloys that showed although the CO dissociation process is thermodynamically possible on the more reactive surface alloys, but according to their high barrier, CO dissociation does not occur directly on these surfaces. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi R.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan | Sarmadian F.,University of Tehran | Minasny B.,University of Sydney | Triantafilis J.,University of New South Wales | Omid M.,University of Tehran
Arid Land Research and Management | Year: 2014

Digital soil mapping (DSM) involves acquisition of field soil observations and matching them with environmental variables that can explain the distribution of soils. The harmonization of these data sets, through computer-based methods, are increasingly being found to be as reliable as traditional soil mapping practices, but without the prohibitive costs. Therefore, the present research developed decision tree models for spatial prediction of soil classes in a 720 km2 area located in an arid region of central Iran, where traditional soil survey methods are difficult to undertake. Using the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling method, the locations of 187 soil profiles were selected, which were then described, sampled, analyzed, and allocated to six Great Groups according to the USDA Soil Taxonomy system. Auxiliary data representing the soil forming factors were derived from a digital elevation model (DEM), Landsat 7 ETM+ images, and a map of geomorphology. The accuracy of the decision tree models was evaluated using overall, user, and producer accuracy based on an independent validation data set. Our results showed some auxiliary variables had more influence on the prediction of soil classes which included: topographic wetness index, geomorphological map, multiresolution index of valley bottom flatness, elevation, and principal components of Landsat 7 ETM+ images. Furthermore, the results have confirmed the DSM model successfully predicted Great Groups with overall accuracy up to 67.5%. Our results suggest that the developed methodology could be used to predict soil classes in the arid region of Iran. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Azimzadehirani M.,Sharif University of Technology | Elahifard M.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan | Haghighi S.,Pasteur Institute of Iran | Gholami M.,Sharif University of Technology
Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences | Year: 2013

TiO2-based photocatalysts are seen as the most common agents for the photodegradation of bacteria. In this study, AgCl/TiO2, hydroxyapatite(Hp)/AgCl/TiO2, AgI/TiO2, and Hp/AgI/TiO2 were prepared by the deposition-precipitation method on P25 TiO2 nanoparticles and were characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, EDX and BET methods. The prepared composites showed high efficiency for the inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria under visible light and in dark media with different catalyst amounts of 12 and 24 mg, respectively. In less than 30 min, AgI/TiO2, prepared by the combination of cationic surfactant and PVPI2, disinfected 1 × 107 colony-forming units of E. coli completely. However, AgCl/TiO2 was not stable under the same conditions. Hp was added to AgCl/TiO2 and AgI/TiO2 to extend the antibacterial effect to dark media. Hp/AgCl/TiO2 showed desirable disinfection capabilities under visible light irradiations that function in less than 30 min. During the time interval when the inactivation was complete, the photocatalytic activity of Hp/AgCl/TiO2 under visible light was maintained effectively without the destruction of AgCl. Hp/AgCl/TiO2 and Hp/AgI/TiO2 were found to prevent bacteria from growing during 3 h in the dark. The antibacterial properties of Hp composites in dark environments are mainly due to the strong linkage between Hp and the cell wall which limits the nourishment of bacteria, while under visible light, in addition to the photocatalytic process, the sense-shoot phenomena and the adsorption effects can be accepted. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry and Owner Societies.

Abyar F.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan | Farrokhpour H.,Isfahan University of Technology
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2016

In this work, the gas phase ionization energies and photoelectron spectra of four important conformers of Vitamin C were calculated. Symmetry adapted cluster/configuration interaction methodology employing the single and double excitation operators (SAC-CI SD-R) along with D95 ++(d,p) basis set were used for the calculations. Thermochemistry calculations were also performed on all possible conformers of Vitamin C to find the relative stability of conformers in the gas phase. The calculated ionization bands of each conformer were assigned by calculating the contribution of natural bonding orbital (NBO) in the calculated canonical molecular orbitals involved in the ionization. SAC-CI calculations showed that the first ionization band of Vitamin C is related to the π electrons of C=C bond of the ring of molecule although, there is the lone electron pairs of oxygen atoms and π electrons of C=O bond in the molecule. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi R.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan | Nabiollahi K.,University of Kurdistan | Kerry R.,Brigham Young University
Geoderma | Year: 2016

This study aimed to map SOC lateral, and vertical variations down to 1m depth in a semi-arid region in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Six data mining techniques namely; artificial neural networks, support vector regression, k-nearest neighbor, random forests, regression tree models, and genetic programming were combined with equal-area smoothing splines to develop, evaluate and compare their effectiveness in achieving this aim. Using the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling method, 188 soil profiles in the study area were sampled and soil organic carbon content (SOC) measured. Eighteen ancillary data variables derived from a digital elevation model and Landsat 8 images were used to represent predictive soil forming factors in this study area. Findings showed that normalized difference vegetation index and wetness index were the most useful ancillary data for SOC mapping in the upper (0-15cm) and bottom (60-100cm) of soil profiles, respectively. According to 5-fold cross-validation, artificial neural networks (ANN) showed the highest performance for prediction of SOC in the four standard depths compared to all other data mining techniques. ANNs resulted in the lowest root mean square error and highest Lin's concordance coefficient which ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 log (kg/m3) and 0.68 to 0.41, respectively, with the first value in each range being for the top of the profile and second for the bottom. Furthermore, ANNs increased performance of spatial prediction compared to the other data mining algorithms by up to 36, 23, 21 and 13% for each soil depth, respectively, starting from the top of the profile. Overall, results showed that prediction of subsurface SOC variation needs improvement and the challenge remains to find appropriate covariates that can explain it. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Dehghan A.A.,University of Yazd | Barzegar A.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2011

Transient thermal performance behavior of a vertical storage tank of a domestic solar water heating system with a mantle heat exchanger has been investigated numerically in the discharge/consumption mode. It is assumed that the tank is initially stratified during its previous heat storing/charging operation. During the discharging period, the city cold water is fed at the bottom of the tank and hot water is extracted from its top outlet port for consumption. Meanwhile, the collector loop is assumed to be active. The conservation equations in the axis-symmetric cylindrical co-ordinate have been used and discretised by employing the finite volume method. The low Reynolds number (LRN) k - ω model is utilized for treating turbulence in the fluid. The influence of the tank Grashof number, the incoming cold fluid Reynolds number and the size of the inlet port of the heat storage tank on the transient thermal characteristics of the tank is investigated and discussed. It is found that for higher values of Grashof number, the pre-established thermal stratification is well preserved during the discharging operation mode. It is also noticed that in order to have a tank with a proper thermal performance and or have least mixing inside the tank during the consumption period, the tank inflow Reynolds number and or its inflow port diameter should be kept below certain values. In these cases, the storage tank is enabling to provide proper amount of hot water with a proper temperature for consumption purposes. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Taghizadeh-Mehrjardi R.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science | Year: 2015

This study evaluates the performances of a combination of genetic programming and soil depth functions to map the three-dimensional distribution of cation exchange capacity (CEC) in a semiarid region located in Baneh region, Iran. Using the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling method, the locations of 188 soil profiles were selected, which were then sampled and analyzed. In general, results showed that equal-area quadratic splines had the highest R2, 89%, in fitting the vertical CEC distribution compared to power and logarithmic functions with R2 of 81% and 84%, respectively. Our findings indicated some auxiliary variables had more influence on the prediction of CEC. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) had the highest correlation with CEC in the upper two layers. However, the most important auxiliary data for prediction of CEC in 30–60 cm and 60–100 cm were topographic wetness index and profile curvature, respectively. Validation of the predictive models at each depth interval resulted in R2 values ranging from 66% (0–15 cm) to 19% (60–100 cm). Overall, results indicated the topsoil can be reasonably well predicted; however, the subsoil prediction needs to be improved. We can recommend the use of the developed methodology in mapping CEC in other parts in Iran. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Ardakani A.F.,Islamic Azad University at Ardakan
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Although intangible effects on natural environments are not visible and only become apparent over a long period of time, they may cause irreparable damages whose estimation is not always feasible. However, people’s willingness to pay (WTP) for the prevention of adverse environmental effects can be determined. The present study addresses the issue of the effect of dust in Yazd-Ardakan Plain. It aims at the valuation of local people’s WTP in order to prevent extra-regional intangible effects of dust in Yazd-Ardakan Plain in 2010. The study was based on data collected from 479 questionnaires completed by people in the affected area. Factors affecting local people’s WTP and their expected WTP were estimated by logit regression model. It was revealed that among the studied variables, income, education, and environment importance had significant positive effects, and that household size, type of residence, and bid had significant negative effects on people’s WTP. Also, the WTP for the conservation of the region was estimated as to be 93.4 billion Iranian Rials (IRR) per year. In other words, it is necessary to invest at least 93.4 billion IRR to prevent the adverse impacts of dust on the plain. Given the 183 billion IRR expenditure for stabilizing sand in the region and the estimated 93.4 billion IRR protection value for the plain, 50 % of expenses would be paid by people living in the region, which paves the way for the fulfillment of conservation programs by experts using public contributions. © 2016, Islamic Azad University (IAU).

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