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Bahawalpur, Pakistan

The Islamia University of Bahawalpur , colloquially known as Islamia University, is located in Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan. Wikipedia.

Azhar Khan M.,University of Haripur | Zahir Khan M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology | Naz L.,University of Karachi
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

The present study examines the long-run relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission for different groups of countries comprising lower middle income, upper middle income, and heavily indebted countries, East Asia and Pacific, East Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and for aggregate data of the world. The data has been analyzed by using various econometric techniques, specifically the Johnson cointegration, modified version of Granger causality and variance decomposition analysis from the period of 1975 to 2011. The results confirm that there is a long-run relationship between greenhouse gas emissions (i.e. agricultural methane emission, agricultural nitrous oxide emission and carbon dioxide emission) and energy consumption. The results of Granger causality indicate that energy consumption Granger causes greenhouse gas emission but not vice versa. The important finding is that energy consumption Granger causes GDP per unit energy use, which confirms the energy led growth hypothesis in the world. However, the vice versa relationship does not hold. The results imply that a policy to cut energy consumption tends to diminish greenhouse gas emission though affecting GDP of countries negatively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Akram M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

An experiment was conducted to assess whether accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, proline, and maintenance of water relation attributes relate to the yield of maize hybrids differing in salt tolerance. Two maize hybrids, Pioneer32B33 and Dekalb979, were grown at three salinity levels under four nitrogen treatments. The experiment was laid out in a three-factor randomized complete block design and there were three replications of each treatment. Salt stress significantly decreased leaf chlorophyll a and a/b contents, whereas chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were slightly increased. Under salinity stress, relative water content decreased, and water potential and osmotic potential become more negative. As a result, turgor potential also decreased. Nitrogen application improved all the chlorophyll pigments, water-related attributes, and yield components. However, chlorophyll a/b ratio was decreased. Overall, because of the differential response of maize hybrids to salt stress in terms of their performance in photosynthetic pigments, water relations, and yield, it can be concluded that hybrid Pioneer32B33 might perform better, if grown under salinity regime and sufficient nitrogen was applied in the growth medium. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Akram M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

An experiment was conducted to study the response of two maize hybrids to external potassium (K) application under saline conditions. The data showed that there was an increase in the organic solute contents and sodium ion under salinity stress, though potassium, calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus were decreased. There was a non-significant effect of K application on glycinebetaine and total soluble sugar, however; the proline, protein and total free amino acids were increased with the application of external K. The enzymatic activity like nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity were severely reduced under salinity stress and improved by K application. The maize hybrids differed significantly for all the parameters discussed in the study except sugar, phosphorus and number of grain rows per cob. The increase in yield parameters was more pronounced under control than under saline conditions. The enhanced yield and yield components of these maize hybrids might be due to the quick response to external K application, resulting in high contents of leaf potassium, calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus. The results indicated that the maize hybrid 'Pioneer32B33' might perform better than 'Dekalb979' under saline conditions when sufficient potassium is applied in the rooting medium. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Akram M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits the productivity of crops, particularly cereal crops, while decreasing nutrient availability, especially of nitrogen. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of salt stress [i.e., S0, S1, and S2 (control, 1.09; 5; and 10 dS m-1)] and four different nitrogen (N) levels [i.e., N0, N1, N2, and N3 (control, 175, 225, and 275 kg N ha-1)] on two maize hybrids, Pioneer 32B33 (salt tolerant) and Dekalb 979 (salt sensitive). The experiment was conducted in a wire house. The experiment was laid out with three factors in a completely randomized design. The plant tissue was analyzed for solute and ion contents. With the increase in salt stress and N rate, solute (i.e., glycinebetaine), protein, total soluble sugar, and total free amino acids accumulated in both hybrids. Nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) reductase activity decreased sharply at 10 dS m-1 compared to lower levels of salinity but it increased significantly with the addition of N. The uptake of potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), N, and phosphorus (P) reduced significantly in shoots with increased salinity while the sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl) contents were increased. It is concluded from the present study that at greater salinity level, hybrid Pioneer32B33 maintained statistically greater solute and ion contents excluding Na+ and Cl ions and significantly decreased enzyme activity. However, these parameters were increased by N rate. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Amjad M.,University of Technology Malaysia | Amjad M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur | Salam Z.,University of Technology Malaysia
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

It is well known that ozone concentration depends on air/oxygen input flow rate and power consumed by the ozone chamber. For every chamber, there exists a unique optimum flow rate that results in maximum ozone concentration. If the flow rate is increased (beyond) or decreased (below) from this optimum value, the ozone concentration drops. This paper proposes a technique whereby the concentration can be maintained even if the flow rate increases. The idea is to connect n number of ozone chambers in parallel, with each chamber designed to operate at its optimum point. Aside from delivering high ozone concentration at high flow rate, the proposed system requires only one power supply to drive all these (multiple) chambers simultaneously. In addition, due to its modularity, the system is very flexible, i.e., the number of chambers can be added or removed as demanded by the (output) ozone requirements. This paper outlines the chamber design using mica as dielectric and the determination of its parameters. To verify the concept, three chambers are connected in parallel and driven by a single transformer-less LCL resonant power supply. Moreover, a closed-loop feedback controller is implemented to ensure that the voltage gain remains at the designated value even if the number of chambers is changed or there is a variation in the components. It is shown that the flow rate can be increased linearly with the number of chambers while maintaining a constant ozone concentration. © 1982-2012 IEEE.

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