Akram M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014
An experiment was conducted to assess whether accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, proline, and maintenance of water relation attributes relate to the yield of maize hybrids differing in salt tolerance. Two maize hybrids, Pioneer32B33 and Dekalb979, were grown at three salinity levels under four nitrogen treatments. The experiment was laid out in a three-factor randomized complete block design and there were three replications of each treatment. Salt stress significantly decreased leaf chlorophyll a and a/b contents, whereas chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were slightly increased. Under salinity stress, relative water content decreased, and water potential and osmotic potential become more negative. As a result, turgor potential also decreased. Nitrogen application improved all the chlorophyll pigments, water-related attributes, and yield components. However, chlorophyll a/b ratio was decreased. Overall, because of the differential response of maize hybrids to salt stress in terms of their performance in photosynthetic pigments, water relations, and yield, it can be concluded that hybrid Pioneer32B33 might perform better, if grown under salinity regime and sufficient nitrogen was applied in the growth medium. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Akram M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013
An experiment was conducted to study the response of two maize hybrids to external potassium (K) application under saline conditions. The data showed that there was an increase in the organic solute contents and sodium ion under salinity stress, though potassium, calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus were decreased. There was a non-significant effect of K application on glycinebetaine and total soluble sugar, however; the proline, protein and total free amino acids were increased with the application of external K. The enzymatic activity like nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase activity were severely reduced under salinity stress and improved by K application. The maize hybrids differed significantly for all the parameters discussed in the study except sugar, phosphorus and number of grain rows per cob. The increase in yield parameters was more pronounced under control than under saline conditions. The enhanced yield and yield components of these maize hybrids might be due to the quick response to external K application, resulting in high contents of leaf potassium, calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus. The results indicated that the maize hybrid 'Pioneer32B33' might perform better than 'Dekalb979' under saline conditions when sufficient potassium is applied in the rooting medium. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Azhar Khan M.,University of Haripur |
Zahir Khan M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur |
Zaman K.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology |
Naz L.,University of Karachi
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014
The present study examines the long-run relationship between energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission for different groups of countries comprising lower middle income, upper middle income, and heavily indebted countries, East Asia and Pacific, East Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and Caribbean, Middle East and North Africa, South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and for aggregate data of the world. The data has been analyzed by using various econometric techniques, specifically the Johnson cointegration, modified version of Granger causality and variance decomposition analysis from the period of 1975 to 2011. The results confirm that there is a long-run relationship between greenhouse gas emissions (i.e. agricultural methane emission, agricultural nitrous oxide emission and carbon dioxide emission) and energy consumption. The results of Granger causality indicate that energy consumption Granger causes greenhouse gas emission but not vice versa. The important finding is that energy consumption Granger causes GDP per unit energy use, which confirms the energy led growth hypothesis in the world. However, the vice versa relationship does not hold. The results imply that a policy to cut energy consumption tends to diminish greenhouse gas emission though affecting GDP of countries negatively. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Mahmood T.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur |
Akhtar N.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Rejuvenation Research | Year: 2013
No study has yet determined the anti-wrinkle efficacy of green tea plus lotus in Asian subjects using skin image analysis technique. In this study, the efficacy of two cosmetic active formulations intended for the treatment of facial wrinkles (green tea and lotus extract) has been evaluated in healthy subjects using a non-invasive device, the Visioscan® VC, and software for surface evaluation of living skin (SELS). Thirty-three healthy Asian subjects, all men, were enrolled after consent in a placebo-controlled comparative study with a split face design. One group applied multiple emulsions with green tea. The second group applied multiple emulsions with lotus extract, while a third group applied a multiple emulsion with a combination of both extracts. In all three groups, active formulations were applied to one side of the face and the placebo to the other side, once daily over the 60-day treatment course. Non-invasive measurements were performed at baseline and on days 30 and 60. Interesting and significant improvements were observed for the treatment effects on skin roughness (SEr), scaliness (SEsc), smoothness (SEsm), and wrinkling (SEw). For example, a 49.99% improvement in skin smoothness (SEsm) from baseline value and -23.22% and perfection in facial wrinkles (SEw) substantiated that combined treatment is superior over single treatments. Green tea and lotus combined in multiple emulsions brought a superior synergistic anti-aging effect. We conclude that diverse anti-oxidant constituents in both plants have a potential influence on skin surface parameters, thus indicating these plants as the future of new anti-aging products. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Amjad M.,University of Technology Malaysia |
Amjad M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur |
Salam Z.,University of Technology Malaysia
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014
It is well known that ozone concentration depends on air/oxygen input flow rate and power consumed by the ozone chamber. For every chamber, there exists a unique optimum flow rate that results in maximum ozone concentration. If the flow rate is increased (beyond) or decreased (below) from this optimum value, the ozone concentration drops. This paper proposes a technique whereby the concentration can be maintained even if the flow rate increases. The idea is to connect n number of ozone chambers in parallel, with each chamber designed to operate at its optimum point. Aside from delivering high ozone concentration at high flow rate, the proposed system requires only one power supply to drive all these (multiple) chambers simultaneously. In addition, due to its modularity, the system is very flexible, i.e., the number of chambers can be added or removed as demanded by the (output) ozone requirements. This paper outlines the chamber design using mica as dielectric and the determination of its parameters. To verify the concept, three chambers are connected in parallel and driven by a single transformer-less LCL resonant power supply. Moreover, a closed-loop feedback controller is implemented to ensure that the voltage gain remains at the designated value even if the number of chambers is changed or there is a variation in the components. It is shown that the flow rate can be increased linearly with the number of chambers while maintaining a constant ozone concentration. © 1982-2012 IEEE.
Gul A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur |
Ahmad H.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Epilepsy and Behavior | Year: 2014
This study examined the task-switching ability and emotion regulation strategies in 72 patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and 72 healthy individuals, where participants categorized emotion and age dimensions among faces. Results demonstrated cognitive impairment in terms of the interrupted ability to switch between emotion and nonemotion face categorizations in patients with PNES. In contrast, healthy individuals exhibited efficient switching between these face categorizations. In patients with PNES, there was an asymmetric relationship between emotion and age tasks, while this asymmetry was absent in the healthy group. The results demonstrated that patients with PNES used expressive suppression to regulate their emotions more frequently than the control group. On the other hand, patients with PNES less frequently reappraised their cognitions than healthy individuals. Switching deficits in patients with PNES were positively correlated with expressive suppression but were negatively correlated with cognitive reappraisal. This is the first study demonstrating the presence of switching deficits in terms of inferior cognitive control of emotion in patients with PNES as compared to healthy individuals. The switching deficits are associated with emotion regulation strategies. These findings suggest that emotion regulation strategies are significant markers of switching deficits in patients with PNES. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Akram M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014
Salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits the productivity of crops, particularly cereal crops, while decreasing nutrient availability, especially of nitrogen. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of salt stress [i.e., S0, S1, and S2 (control, 1.09; 5; and 10 dS m-1)] and four different nitrogen (N) levels [i.e., N0, N1, N2, and N3 (control, 175, 225, and 275 kg N ha-1)] on two maize hybrids, Pioneer 32B33 (salt tolerant) and Dekalb 979 (salt sensitive). The experiment was conducted in a wire house. The experiment was laid out with three factors in a completely randomized design. The plant tissue was analyzed for solute and ion contents. With the increase in salt stress and N rate, solute (i.e., glycinebetaine), protein, total soluble sugar, and total free amino acids accumulated in both hybrids. Nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) reductase activity decreased sharply at 10 dS m-1 compared to lower levels of salinity but it increased significantly with the addition of N. The uptake of potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), N, and phosphorus (P) reduced significantly in shoots with increased salinity while the sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl) contents were increased. It is concluded from the present study that at greater salinity level, hybrid Pioneer32B33 maintained statistically greater solute and ion contents excluding Na+ and Cl ions and significantly decreased enzyme activity. However, these parameters were increased by N rate. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Khalid A.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
2010 International Conference on Signal Acquisition and Processing, ICSAP 2010 | Year: 2010
Cloud computing has developed from being a gifted commerce idea to one of the top geared sector of the Information Technology. Now, declined organizations are progressively introducing themselves in this technology in order to achieve reliable services at minimal cost. But as small and medium size business are looking forward to adopt least economical computing resources for their business applications, there is a need to identify all the issues while deploying it. The paper highlights some of most critical issues along with some mitigating steps in order to achieve rewarding deployment. This also describes some future development work of under laying concept. © 2010 IEEE.
Nadeem S.M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad |
Ahmad M.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur |
Zahir Z.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad |
Javaid A.,University of Punjab |
Ashraf M.,University of Sargodha
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014
Both biotic and abiotic stresses are major constrains to agricultural production. Under stress conditions, plant growth is affected by a number of factors such as hormonal and nutritional imbalance, ion toxicity, physiological disorders, susceptibility to diseases, etc. Plant growth under stress conditions may be enhanced by the application of microbial inoculation including plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and mycorrhizal fungi. These microbes can promote plant growth by regulating nutritional and hormonal balance, producing plant growth regulators, solubilizing nutrients and inducing resistance against plant pathogens. In addition to their interactions with plants, these microbes also show synergistic as well as antagonistic interactions with other microbes in the soil environment. These interactions may be vital for sustainable agriculture because they mainly depend on biological processes rather than on agrochemicals to maintain plant growth and development as well as proper soil health under stress conditions. A number of research articles can be deciphered from the literature, which shows the role of rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae alone and/or in combination in enhancing plant growth under stress conditions. However, in contrast, a few review papers are available which discuss the synergistic interactions between rhizobacteria and mycorrhizae for enhancing plant growth under normal (non-stress) or stressful environments. Biological interactions between PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi are believed to cause a cumulative effect on all rhizosphere components, and these interactions are also affected by environmental factors such as soil type, nutrition, moisture and temperature. The present review comprehensively discusses recent developments on the effectiveness of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi for enhancing plant growth under stressful environments. The key mechanisms involved in plant stress tolerance and the effectiveness of microbial inoculation for enhancing plant growth under stress conditions have been discussed at length in this review. Growth promotion by single and dual inoculation of PGPR and mycorrhizal fungi under stress conditions have also been discussed and reviewed comprehensively. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Waqas M.K.,Islamia University of Bahawalpur
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2013
Aiming at the exploration of herbal use by society, crude extracts of the seeds of some commonly used medicinal plants (Vitis vinifera, Tamarindus indica and Glycin max) were screened for their free radical scavenging properties using ascorbic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The overall antioxidant activity of grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) was the strongest, followed in descending order by soybean (Glycin max) and tamarind (Tamarindus indica). The seeds extract of Vitis vinifera, Glycin max and Tamarindus indica showed 85.61%, 83.45% and 79.26%, DPPH scavenging activity respectively.