Rosti J.,Aalto University |
Koivisto J.,Aalto University |
Laurson L.,ISI Foundation |
Alava M.J.,Aalto University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010
The spatial fluctuations of deformation are studied in the creep in Andrade's power law and the logarithmic phases, using paper samples. Measurements by the digital image correlation technique show that the relative strength of the strain rate fluctuations increases with time, in both creep regimes. In the Andrade creep phase characterized by a power-law decay of the strain rate t∼t-θ, with θ 0.7, the fluctuations obey Δ t∼t-γ, with γ ≤ 0.5. The local deformation follows a data collapse appropriate for a phase transition. Similar behavior is found in a crystal plasticity model, with a jamming or yielding transition. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Giorda P.,ISI Foundation |
Paris M.G.A.,University of Milan
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2010
We extend the quantum discord to continuous variable systems and evaluate Gaussian quantum discord C(at) for bipartite Gaussian states. In particular, for squeezed-thermal states, we explicitly maximize the extractable information over Gaussian measurements: C(at) is minimized by a generalized measurement rather than a projective one. Almost all squeezed-thermal states have nonzero Gaussian discord: They may be either separable or entangled if the discord is below the threshold C(at)=1, whereas they are all entangled above the threshold. We elucidate the general role of state parameters in determining the discord and discuss its evolution in noisy channels. © 2010 The American Physical Society.
Papanikolaou S.,Cornell University |
Bohn F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte |
Bohn F.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) |
Sommer R.L.,Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF) |
And 4 more authors.
Nature Physics | Year: 2011
The study of critical phenomena and universal power laws has been one of the central advances in statistical mechanicsduring the second half of the past century, explaining traditional thermodynamic critical points1, avalanche behaviour near depinning transitions2,3 and a wide variety of other phenomena4. Scaling, universality and the renormalization group claim to predict all behaviour at long length and timescales asymptotically close to critical points. In most cases, the comparison between theory and experiments has been limited to the evaluation of the critical exponents of the power-law distributions predicted at criticality. An excellent area for investigating scaling phenomena is provided by systems exhibiting crackling noise, such as the Barkhausen effect in ferromagnetic materials 5. Here we go beyond power-law scaling and focus on the average functional form of the noise emitted by avalanches-the average temporal avalanche shape4. By analysing thin permalloy films and improving the data analysis methods, our experiments become quantitatively consistent with our calculation for the multivariable scaling function in the presence of a demagnetizing field and finite field-ramp rate. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Tilston N.L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine |
Paolotti D.,ISI Foundation |
Ealden T.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
BMC Public Health | Year: 2010
Background. Internet-based surveillance systems to monitor influenza-like illness (ILI) have advantages over traditional (physician-based) reporting systems, as they can potentially monitor a wider range of cases (i.e. including those that do not seek care). However, the requirement for participants to have internet access and to actively participate calls into question the representativeness of the data. Such systems have been in place in a number of European countries over the last few years, and in July 2009 this was extended to the UK. Here we present results of this survey with the aim of assessing the reliability of the data, and to evaluate methods to correct for possible biases. Methods. Internet-based monitoring of ILI was launched near the peak of the first wave of the UK H1N1v influenza pandemic. We compared the recorded ILI incidence with physician-recorded incidence and an estimate of the true number of cases over the course of the epidemic. We also compared overall attack rates. The effect of using different ILI definitions and alternative denominator assumptions on incidence estimates was explored. Results. The crude incidence measured by the internet-based system appears to be influenced by individuals who participated only once in the survey and who appeared more likely to be ill. This distorted the overall incidence trend. Concentrating on individuals who reported more than once results in a time series of ILI incidence that matches the trend of case estimates reasonably closely, with a correlation of 0.713 (P-value: 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.435, 0.867). Indeed, the internet-based system appears to give a better estimate of the relative height of the two waves of the UK pandemic than the physician-recorded incidence. The overall attack rate is, however, higher than other estimates, at about 16% when compared with a model-based estimate of 6%. Conclusion. Internet-based monitoring of ILI can capture the trends in case numbers if appropriate weighting is used to correct for differential response. The overall level of incidence is, however, difficult to measure. Internet-based systems may be a useful adjunct to existing ILI surveillance systems as they capture cases that do not necessarily contact health care. However, further research is required before they can be used to accurately assess the absolute level of incidence in the community. © 2010 Tilston et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Petri G.,ISI Foundation |
Expert P.,Kings College London
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2014
We present a method to find the best temporal partition at any time scale and rank the relevance of partitions found at different time scales. This method is based on random walkers coevolving with the network and as such constitutes a generalization of partition stability to the case of temporal networks. We show that, when applied to a toy model and real data sets, temporal stability uncovers structures that are persistent over meaningful time scales as well as important isolated events, making it an effective tool to study both abrupt changes and gradual evolution of a network mesoscopic structures. © 2014 American Physical Society.