Ishizuka Animal Hospital

Kishiwada, Japan

Ishizuka Animal Hospital

Kishiwada, Japan

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Pathirana I.N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tanaka K.,Osaka Prefecture University | Kawate N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tsuji M.,Ishizuka Animal Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

Differences in the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in the estrogen receptor α gene (ESR1) were examined in Miniature Dachshunds (n=48), Chihuahuas (n=20) and Toy Poodles (n=18). Five DNA fragments located in the 40-kb region at the 3′ end of ESR1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and were directly sequenced. We compared allele, genotype and estimated haplotype frequencies at each SNP in the 3′ end of ESR1 for these three breeds of small dog. The frequency of the major allele and the genotype frequency of the major allele homozygotes, were significantly higher in Toy Poodles for five SNPs (SNP #5, #14-17) than in Miniature Dachshunds, and significantly higher in Toy Poodles than Chihuahuas for three SNPs (SNP #15-17). A common haplotype block was identified in an approximately 20-kb region encompassing four SNPs (SNPs # 14-17). The frequencies of the most abundant estimated haplotype (GTTG) and GTTG homozygotes were significantly higher in Toy Poodles than in the other two breeds. These results imply that homozygosity for the allele, genotype and haplotype distribution within the block at the 3′ end of ESR1 is greater in Toy Poodles than in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Pathirana I.N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Kawate N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tsuji M.,Ishizuka Animal Hospital | Takahashi M.,Osaka Prefecture University | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2011

The objective was to determine the effects of estradiol-17β, monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) on testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) secretions in cultured testicular interstitial cells isolated (enzymatic dispersion) from scrotal and retained testes of small-breed dogs. Suspension cultures were treated with estradiol-17β (0, 10, and 100 ng/mL), MBP (0, 0.8, and 8 mmol/L) or MEHP (0, 0.2, and 0.8 mmol/L) for 18 h, in the presence or absence of 0.1 IU/mL hCG. Testosterone (both basal and hCG-induced) and INSL3 (basal) concentrations were measured in spent medium. Effects of estradiol-17β, MBP, and MEHP on testosterone and INSL3 secretions were not affected (P > 0.15) by cell source (scrotal versus retained testis); therefore, data were combined and analyzed, and outcomes reported as percentage relative to the control. In testicular interstitial cells, basal testosterone secretion was increased (P < 0.01) by 100 ng/mL estradiol-17β (130.2 ± 10.6% of control). Among phthalates, 0.2 and 0.8 mmol/L MEHP stimulated (P < 0.01) basal testosterone secretion (135.5 ± 8.3% and 154.6 ± 12.9%, respectively). However, hCG-induced testosterone secretion was inhibited (P < 0.01) by 8 mmol/L MBP (67.7 ± 6.0%), and tended to be inhibited (P = 0.056) by 0.8 mmol/L MEHP (84.5 ± 5.6%). Basal INSL3 secretion was inhibited (P < 0.01) by 8 mmol/L MBP (73.6 ± 6.8%) and 0.8 mmol/L MEHP (76.9 ± 11.3%). In conclusion, we inferred that estradiol-17β and certain phthalate monoesters had direct effects on secretions of testosterone and INSL3 in canine testicular interstitial cells, with no significant difference between scrotal and retained testes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Pathirana I.N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Ashida Y.,Osaka Prefecture University | Kawate N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tanaka K.,Ishizuka Animal Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2011

Levels of testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) secretions in response to different doses of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in cultured interstitial cells were compared between retained and scrotal testes in dogs. Retained (n= 10) and scrotal (n= 9) testes were obtained from small-breed dogs. The testicular tissues were dispersed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium with Ham's nutrient mixture containing 2000. PU/ml dispase II and 10% fetal bovine serum. The cells were plated with differing concentrations (0-10. IU/ml) of hCG for 18. h in multiwell-plates. Testosterone and INSL3 in the same spent medium were measured by enzyme-immunoassays (EIA). A new EIA with a reliable detection range of 0.025-5. ng/ml was developed in order to measure canine INSL3 in culture medium. Dose-dependent stimulation of testosterone by hCG was observed in the cells of both retained and scrotal testes. The incremental rate of testosterone secretion was significantly lower at 0.1, 1 and 10. IU/ml hCG in the cells of retained testes than in scrotal testes, however. INSL3 secretion was significantly stimulated at 10. IU/ml hCG relative to unstimulated controls comprising cells of scrotal testes; no such stimulation was observed in the cells of retained testes. At 10. IU/ml hCG, the incremental rate of INSL3 was significantly lower in the cells of retained testes than scrotal testes. These results suggest that LH-induced secretory testosterone and INSL3 responses are lower in the interstitial cells of retained testes than of scrotal testes. Furthermore, the high concentrations of LH may acutely stimulate INSL3 release in scrotal testes of dogs, but not in retained testes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Pathirana I.N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Yamasaki H.,Osaka Prefecture University | Kawate N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tsuji M.,Ishizuka Animal Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2012

The objectives were to: (1) develop a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) to measure insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in canine plasma; (2) investigate changes of plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone with age in normal male dogs; and (3) compare hormonal concentrations among cryptorchid, normal, and castrated dogs to evaluate endocrine function of the Leydig cell component in retained testes. Blood samples were taken from normal male dogs from prepubertal age to advanced age (4 mo to 14 y, n = 89), and from unilateral cryptorchid (n = 31), bilateral cryptorchid (n = 7), and castrated dogs (n = 3). Canine plasma INSL3 was measured with a newly developed TRFIA. The minimum detection limit of the INSL3 assay was 0.02 ng/ml and the detection range was 0.02 to 20 ng/ml. Plasma INSL3 concentrations increased (P < 0.05) from prepubertal age (4-6 mo) to pubertal age (6-12 mo), and then declined (P < 0.05) from pubertal age to post-pubertal age (1-5 y), reaching a plateau. Plasma testosterone concentrations increased (P < 0.0001) dramatically from prepubertal to pubertal ages, and then seemed to plateau. Concentrations of both INSL3 and testosterone were lower (P < 0.0001 for each) in bilateral cryptorchid dogs than in normal and unilateral cryptorchid dogs. The INSL3 (range: 0.05-0.43 ng/ml) and testosterone (range: 0.10-0.94 ng/ml) concentrations were readily detected in bilateral cryptorchids, but not in castrated dogs (INSL3 < 0.02 ng/ml; testosterone < 0.04 ng/ml). In conclusion, plasma INSL3 concentrations in male dogs measured by a newly developed TRFIA had a transient surge at a pubertal age, whereas testosterone did not. Lower plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone in bilateral cryptorchid dogs suggest impaired endocrine functions of Leydig cell component in paired retained testes. Therefore, peripheral plasma INSL3 and testosterone concentrations have potential diagnostic value in predicting the presence of bilaterally retained testes in male dogs. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Pathirana I.N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tanaka K.,Osaka Prefecture University | Kawate N.,Osaka Prefecture University | Tsuji M.,Ishizuka Animal Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2010

This study was performed to examine the distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated haplotypes in the canine estrogen receptor (ER) α gene (ESR1) and the association of them with different phenotypes of cryptorchidism (CO) in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. Forty CO and 68 normal dogs were used, and CO was classified into unilateral (UCO; n=33) and bilateral CO (BCO; n=5) or into abdominal (ACO; n=16) and inguinal CO (ICO; n=22). Thirteen DNA fragments located in the 70-kb region at the 3' end of ESR1 were amplified by PCR and sequenced to examine 13 SNPs (#1-#13) reported in a canine SNP database. Ten SNPs (#1-#4, #7, #8, #10- #13) were not polymorphic, and 5 new SNPs (#14-#18) were discovered. A common haplotype block in normal, CO and CO phenotypes was identified for an approximately 20-kb region encompassing 4 SNPs (#14-#17). Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies in CO without classification by phenotype and also in UCO, ACO and ICO phenotypes were not statistically different from the normal group. Significant differences in genotype frequencies and homozygosity for the estimated GTTG haplotype within the block were observed in BCO compared with the normal group, although the number of BCO animals was small. Our results demonstrate that the examined SNPs and haplotypes in the 3' end of canine ESR1 are not associated with unilateral, abdominal and inguinal CO phenotypes and CO per se in Miniature Dachshunds and Chihuahuas. Further studies are necessary to suggest a clear association between the ESR1 SNPs and bilateral CO in dogs. © 2010 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

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