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Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Uyeno Y.,National Federation of Dairy Co operative Associations | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5g/day before weaning and 10g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Hori N.,Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hori N.,Ishikawa Nanbu Livestock Hygiene Service Center | Nagai M.,Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hirayama M.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 6 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) have the potential to produce genetically superior livestock, considerable numbers of abnormally large animals, including sheep and cattle affected by " large offspring syndrome" (LOS), have been produced by these assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Interestingly, these phenotypes are reminiscent of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) in humans, which is an imprinting disorder characterized by pre- and/or postnatal overgrowth. The imprinting control region KvDMR1, which regulates the coordinated expression of growth control genes such as Cdkn1c, is known to be aberrantly hypomethylated in BWS. Therefore, we hypothesized that aberrant imprinting in this region could contribute to LOS. In this study, we analyzed the DNA methylation status of the Kcnq1ot1/Cdkn1c and Igf2/H19 domains on bovine chromosome 29 and examined the coordinated expression of imprinted genes surrounding them in seven calves derived by NT (which showed signs of developmental abnormality), two calves conceived by IVF (both developmentally abnormal), and three conventional calves that died of unrelated causes. Abnormal hypomethylation status at an imprinting control region of Kcnq1ot1/Cdkn1c domain was observed in two of seven NT-derived calves and one of two IVF-derived calves in almost all organs. Moreover, increased expression of Kcnq1ot1 and diminished expression of Cdkn1c were observed by RT-PCR analysis. This study is the first to describe the abnormal hypomethylation of the KvDMR1 domain and subsequent changes in the gene expression of Kcnq1ot1 and Cdkn1c in a subset of calves produced by ART. Our findings provide strong evidence for a role of altered imprinting control in the development of LOS in bovines. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ishii T.,Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Ishii T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Oribe H.,University of Tsukuba | And 10 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

To decrease the age at first calving in Holsteins, the effects of average daily body weight gain (ADG) and crude protein (CP) level until first insemination on growth performance and milk production were examined. The MM group had a target ADG of 0.75kg and received a diet with a CP level of 14%. The HM and HH groups had a target ADG of 1kg; both these groups received a diet with CP levels 14% and 16%, respectively. The ADG in the HM and HH groups was 1.1kg, whereas in the MM group it was 0.97kg (P<0.01). The HM and HH groups showed no differences in withers height at body weight 350kg. The ages at first calving in MM, HM and HH groups were 23.1, 21.0 and 21.8months, respectively. The HM and HH groups had lower milk yield at day 305 than the MM group (P<0.01). These results suggest that growth performance until first insemination should be maintained at an ADG of 0.97kg or less with a CP level of approximately 14%, to shorten time until first insemination and prevent the decrease of milk yield. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hasunuma T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Nakayama H.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134 T (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n=16), SB feeding group (n=18), and control group (n=18). Body weight at 90days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90days of age were greater (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P<0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

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