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Ishii T.,Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Ishii T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Oribe H.,University of Tsukuba | And 10 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

To decrease the age at first calving in Holsteins, the effects of average daily body weight gain (ADG) and crude protein (CP) level until first insemination on growth performance and milk production were examined. The MM group had a target ADG of 0.75kg and received a diet with a CP level of 14%. The HM and HH groups had a target ADG of 1kg; both these groups received a diet with CP levels 14% and 16%, respectively. The ADG in the HM and HH groups was 1.1kg, whereas in the MM group it was 0.97kg (P<0.01). The HM and HH groups showed no differences in withers height at body weight 350kg. The ages at first calving in MM, HM and HH groups were 23.1, 21.0 and 21.8months, respectively. The HM and HH groups had lower milk yield at day 305 than the MM group (P<0.01). These results suggest that growth performance until first insemination should be maintained at an ADG of 0.97kg or less with a CP level of approximately 14%, to shorten time until first insemination and prevent the decrease of milk yield. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Akiyama K.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | Hashimura S.,Kanagawa Prefectural Livestock Industry Technology Center | And 8 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016

To determine changes in reticular pH during the pre- and postpartum periods, when subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) frequently occurs, we monitored pH in dairy cows up to 12 weeks postpartum using a radio transmission pH sensing system. We designated seven pregnant multiparous Holstein cows for continuous pH monitoring (pH monitoring test), resulting in successful data acquisition for reticular pH. We subsequently evaluated the cows to determine whether active dry yeast supplementation of their feed was effective for SARA prevention (yeast supplementation test). Twenty- nine pregnant cows were allocated to two groups (control [CON, n = 15] and yeast- supplemented [YEA, n = 14]) and fed a mixed ration optimized for dry prepartum cows and a mixed ration that consisted mainly of timothy hay and a commercial concentrate. The feed of the YEA group was supplemented with 10 g/day of commercial active yeast product for three weeks prepartum and twelve weeks postpartum. In the latter test, six cows in each group were selected for reticular pH recording using the pH monitoring system. The pH profiles in the pH monitoring test were relatively high compared to those in the yeast supplementation test throughout the testing period, probably due to differences in starch and fiber levels between experiments despite their identical formula design. Notably, regardless of yeast supplementation, 11 of 12 cows in the latter test exhibited similar trends of pH maintenance (6.5 < pH < 6.8) or gradual decrease during the dry period, whereas average daily reticular pH decreased dramatically after calving. Supplementing the diet of dairy cows with yeast during the transition period provided no significant change in the health and performance measurements of the animals. We demonstrated the application of a radio transmission pH sensing system for assessment and monitoring of the ruminal pH of cows in the transition period. Furthermore, our results imply that SARA incidence in the transition and early- to mid-lactation periods may be attributable to a reticuloruminal pH decrease during the dry period, which is difficult to overcome by means of yeast supplementation during the transition period. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Shinshu University, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center, University of Tsukuba and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

Relationship between rumen fermentation parameters, blood biochemical profiles and milk production traits in different yielding dairy cows during early lactation was investigated. Twelve dairy cows were divided into two groups based on their milk yield, that is low-yield (LY) and high-yield (HY) groups. Rumen fluid and blood were collected at 3weeks prepartum and 4, 8 and 12weeks postpartum. Results showed that proportions of acetate, propionate to total short chain fatty acids and acetate:propionate ratio were changed (P<0.05) in both groups during the peripartum period, whereas butyrate and acetate:butyrate ratio were only altered in the HY group. Blood cholesterol, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in the HY group were higher (P<0.01) than those in the LY group. Principal component analysis revealed that milk yield and milk compositions were differently clustered between groups. These parameters showed similar direction with dry matter intake in the HY group and adverse direction in the LY group. Linear regression analysis indicated that butyrate was positively correlated with BHBA (P<0.05) in the HY group. This study suggests that cows in the HY group seem to accommodate appropriately to negative energy balance in early lactation through rumen fermentation.


Hori N.,Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hori N.,Ishikawa Nanbu Livestock Hygiene Service Center | Nagai M.,Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hirayama M.,National Livestock Breeding Center | And 6 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2010

Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) have the potential to produce genetically superior livestock, considerable numbers of abnormally large animals, including sheep and cattle affected by " large offspring syndrome" (LOS), have been produced by these assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Interestingly, these phenotypes are reminiscent of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) in humans, which is an imprinting disorder characterized by pre- and/or postnatal overgrowth. The imprinting control region KvDMR1, which regulates the coordinated expression of growth control genes such as Cdkn1c, is known to be aberrantly hypomethylated in BWS. Therefore, we hypothesized that aberrant imprinting in this region could contribute to LOS. In this study, we analyzed the DNA methylation status of the Kcnq1ot1/Cdkn1c and Igf2/H19 domains on bovine chromosome 29 and examined the coordinated expression of imprinted genes surrounding them in seven calves derived by NT (which showed signs of developmental abnormality), two calves conceived by IVF (both developmentally abnormal), and three conventional calves that died of unrelated causes. Abnormal hypomethylation status at an imprinting control region of Kcnq1ot1/Cdkn1c domain was observed in two of seven NT-derived calves and one of two IVF-derived calves in almost all organs. Moreover, increased expression of Kcnq1ot1 and diminished expression of Cdkn1c were observed by RT-PCR analysis. This study is the first to describe the abnormal hypomethylation of the KvDMR1 domain and subsequent changes in the gene expression of Kcnq1ot1 and Cdkn1c in a subset of calves produced by ART. Our findings provide strong evidence for a role of altered imprinting control in the development of LOS in bovines. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Ishikawa Hokubu Livestock Hygiene Service Center and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases | Year: 2017

Bovine rotavirus B (RVB) is an etiological agent of diarrhea mostly in adult cattle. Currently, a few sequences of viral protein (VP)1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 and nonstructural protein (NSP)1, 2, and 5 of bovine RVB are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases, and none have been reported for VP3, NSP3, and NSP4. In order to fill this gap in the genetic characterization of bovine RVB strains, we used a metagenomics approach and sequenced and analyzed the complete coding sequences (CDS) of VP3, NSP3, and NSP4 genes, as well as the partial or complete CDS of other genes of RVBs detected from Japanese cattle. VP3, NSP3, and NSP4 of bovine RVBs shared low nucleotide sequence identities (63.3-64.9% for VP3, 65.9-68.2% for NSP3, and 52.6-56.2% for NSP4) with those of murine, human, and porcine RVBs, suggesting that bovine RVBs belong to a novel genotype. Furthermore, significantly low amino acid sequence identities were observed for NSP4 (36.1-39.3%) between bovine RVBs and the RVBs of other species. In contrast, hydrophobic plot analysis of NSP4 revealed profiles similar to those of RVBs of other species and rotavirus A (RVA) strains. Phylogenetic analyses of all gene segments revealed that bovine RVB strains formed a cluster that branched distantly from other RVBs. These results suggest that bovine RVBs have evolved independently from other RVBs but in a similar manner to other rotaviruses. These findings provide insights into the evolution and diversity of RVB strains.


Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Uyeno Y.,National Federation of Dairy Co operative Associations | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5g/day before weaning and 10g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hasunuma T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Nakayama H.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134 T (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n=16), SB feeding group (n=18), and control group (n=18). Body weight at 90days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90days of age were greater (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P<0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


PubMed | Shinshu University, Forestry and Fisheries Research Center, Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center, Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho | Year: 2016

The effects of supplementing feed of cows in mid-to-late lactation with an active yeast product (Actisaf Sc 47) were evaluated using 15 Holstein cows in a replicated 33 Latin square design. The animals were fed a mixed ration with 33% neutral detergent fiber, consisting of timothy hay (29.8%), a commercial concentrate (70.0%) and commercial calcium triphosphate (0.2%), twice daily to meet 105% of their energy requirement. Yeast supplement was set at 0, 5 and 10g per day over 21-day periods, each of which consisted of 14days for adaptation followed by 7days of data collection. Milking performance, plasma metabolite parameters, rumen volatile fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and microbial properties were measured. Although there were no significant differences in feeding and milking performance or blood parameters associated with supplementation, the acetate to propionate ratio in the rumen fluid tended to decrease (P=0.08). The population of Bacteroidetes tended to be less prominent (P=0.07) and the fibrolytic bacterium Fibrobacter significantly increased (P<0.05) in the rumen fluid of the yeast 10g group compared with that of the control. These data suggest that effects of supplementing live yeast to cows in mid-to-late lactation may be limited to microbial composition and fermentation characteristics in the rumen.


PubMed | Ishikawa Prefectural Livestock Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2010

Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) have the potential to produce genetically superior livestock, considerable numbers of abnormally large animals, including sheep and cattle affected by large offspring syndrome (LOS), have been produced by these assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Interestingly, these phenotypes are reminiscent of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) in humans, which is an imprinting disorder characterized by pre- and/or postnatal overgrowth. The imprinting control region KvDMR1, which regulates the coordinated expression of growth control genes such as Cdkn1c, is known to be aberrantly hypomethylated in BWS. Therefore, we hypothesized that aberrant imprinting in this region could contribute to LOS. In this study, we analyzed the DNA methylation status of the Kcnq1ot1/Cdkn1c and Igf2/H19 domains on bovine chromosome 29 and examined the coordinated expression of imprinted genes surrounding them in seven calves derived by NT (which showed signs of developmental abnormality), two calves conceived by IVF (both developmentally abnormal), and three conventional calves that died of unrelated causes. Abnormal hypomethylation status at an imprinting control region of Kcnq1ot1/Cdkn1c domain was observed in two of seven NT-derived calves and one of two IVF-derived calves in almost all organs. Moreover, increased expression of Kcnq1ot1 and diminished expression of Cdkn1c were observed by RT-PCR analysis. This study is the first to describe the abnormal hypomethylation of the KvDMR1 domain and subsequent changes in the gene expression of Kcnq1ot1 and Cdkn1c in a subset of calves produced by ART. Our findings provide strong evidence for a role of altered imprinting control in the development of LOS in bovines.

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