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Noaman V.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2015

This study was carried out to assess the presence and prevalence of the Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep and goats flocks in central Iran. Five counties in the Isfahan Province, namely Borkhar-va-Meimeh, Lenjan, Mobareke, Naein, and Shahreza, were investigated. The villages and flocks were selected by stratified random sampling method. Samples were randomly collected from healthy sheep and goats. A total of 353 samples which included milk (n = 281) and conjunctiva (n = 72) from both sheep and goats were collected. Then, M. agalactiae was identified by conventional and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Chi-square (χ2) test was used to reveal the association between the prevalence of M. agalactiae and seasons, locations, species, sex, age groups, types of sample, clinical sign, and vaccination. Results obtained showed that 14 (4 %) out of 353 samples were positive in pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) agar. Ten out of 14 isolates (2.8 %) were confirmed by PCR method. M. agalactiae prevalence was relatively higher (χ2 = 3.21, df = 1, p = 0.07) in sheep compared to those in goats. Statistically, no significant difference was observed (p > 0.05) between the prevalence of M. agalactiae and seasons, locations, sex, age groups, types of sample, clinical sign, and vaccination. Therefore, M. agalactiae was detected with a low frequency of presence and distribution. Since M. agalactiae infection spreads quickly, it is recommended that the controlling must be performed and rapid detection is needed. © 2014, Springer-Verlag London.


Soufbaf M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Fathipour Y.,Tarbiat Modares University | Hui C.,Stellenbosch University | Karimzadeh J.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2012

Using experiments and spatial modeling, we here show the conditions for two competing parasitoids to coexist under two levels of plant availability in a tri-trophic food web of canola, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and two parasitic wasps (Diadegma semiclausum and Cotesia vestalis) that target the same life stage of the herbivore diamondback moth. Plant availability had a significant effect on both the abundances of parasitoids and the herbivore. However, parasitoid abundances were not different with or without the occurrence of other parasitoid species, suggesting no effect of parasitoid coexistence on their abundances. Using a three-species Lotka-Volterra model, we confirmed the competitive exclusion of species with low consumption rate (=initial population size × per capita consumption rate) in a well-mixed habitat patch. We further built a cellular automaton (CA) to explore the minimum habitat size that ensures the coexistence of these two parasitoids, assuming different searching efficiencies (i.e. different radiuses of searching area and movement abilities for locating the host). With the in-patch dynamics portrayed by the three-species Lotka-Volterra model, the CA model demonstrated the possibility for the two parasitoids to coexist when the number of habitat patches reached a certain number. This research thus highlights the importance of both plant availability and habitat size to the dynamics and stability of the tri-trophic food web. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Noaman V.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to determine the serum copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and iron (Fe) concentrations of Holstein dairy cows in different seasonal and physiological states. A total of 250 blood samples were collected from healthy Holstein dairy cows. Blood samples were divided according to season, pregnancy, gestation period, calving number, and milk yield. The Cu, Fe, and Zn contents were assessed in samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Neither the seasonal nor the physiological changes affect mean serum Cu and Fe concentrations of Holstein dairy cattle. Mean Zn concentrations in serum vary only with physiological changes, including gestation period and milk yield. In cattle groups divided based on gestation period, the mean serum Zn concentrations were significantly higher for under 3 months than for 6-9 months (P < 0.05). In cattle groups divided based on daily milk yield, the highest serum Zn concentrations were related to the group under 10 kg/day (P < 0.05). In present study, although slight differences were observed in serum Cu, Zn, and Fe concentration in different seasonal and physiological states, especial care must be taken when concentrates are supplemented in different physiological states of Holstein dairy cows by trace elements. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London.


Nikouei A.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Ward F.A.,New Mexico State University
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

This paper examines alternative water pricing arrangements that better manage and more accurately reflect conditions of increased water scarcity experienced during drought in Iran. A comprehensive water balance and crop use model compares the existing below cost water pricing model with an alternative two-tiered pricing approach. The tiers reflect two uses of irrigation water. The uses are (1) subsistence level crop production from farm household production of crops for food security and (2) discretionary cropping. Results of the study offer evidence for a reform of Iranian water pricing principles, subject to caveats described by the authors. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Toghyani M.,Islamic Azad University at Khorasgan | Shivazad M.,University of Tehran | Gheisari A.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Bahadoran R.,Islamic Azad University at Khorasgan
Biological Trace Element Research | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with Cr nicotinate and Cr chloride and their optimum inclusion rate on performance, carcass traits, meat oxidative stability, serum metabolites, hematological parameters, and liver chromium concentration in heat-stressed broilers. A total number of 420, 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to seven treatments with four replicates of 15 chicks. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 500, 1,000, and 1,500 μg/kg Cr in the form of Cr nicotinate and Cr chloride. Chicks were raised for 6 weeks in heat stress condition (33±2°C). Supplements of organic and inorganic Cr particularly at 1,500 μg/kg incorporation increased feed consumption (P<0.05) and body mass gain of broilers (P<0.01). Cr supplementation increased carcass yield and decreased abdominal fat (P< 0.01). Supplementation of 1,500 μg/kg Cr nicotinate (P< 0.05) enhanced liver Cr concentration. Storage time increased lipid oxidation of meat (P<0.01). Cr decreased lipid oxidation of breast and thigh muscles over 2 (P<0.01) or 6 (P<0.05) days of storage time. Birds fed 1,500 μg/kg Cr nicotinate, had lower concentration of serum glucose and triglyceride at 21 days (P<0.05). Hematological parameters tested at 21 and 42 days, were not influenced. The results suggested that dietary Cr supplementation regardless of its source have a positive effect on productive, and carcass traits, also enhances oxidative stability of refrigerated meat in broilers reared under heat stress conditions. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Noaman V.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Shayan P.,University of Tehran
Iranian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2010

Background and Objectives: In Iran, anaplasmosis is normally diagnosed with traditional Giemsa staining method. This is not applicable for identification of the carrier animals. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Anaplasma marginale in two different numbers of microscopic fields (50 and 100) using conventional Giemsa staining method compared with the PCR-RFLP technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, examinations were performed on 150 blood samples from cattle without clinical signs. Sensitivity and specificity of two microscopic fields (50 and 100 fields) were compared with A. marginale specific PCR-RFLP. The degree of agreement between PCR-RFLP and the two microscopic tests was determined by Kappa (κ) values with 95% confidence intervals. Results: PCR-RFLP showed that 58 samples were A. marginale, while routine microscopy showed erythrocytes harboring Anaplasma like structures in 16 and 75 blood samples determined in 50 and 100 microscopic fields respectively. Examination of 50 and 100 microscopic fields showed 25.8% and 91.4% sensitivity and 99% and 76.1% specificity compared to 100% sensitivity and specificity by PCR-RFLP. The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (50 fields) indicated a fair level of agreement (0.29). The Kappa coefficient between PCR-RFLP and Microscopy (100 fields) indicated a good level of agreement (0.64) Conclusion: Our results showed that the microscopic examination remains the convenient technique for day-to-day diagnosis of clinical cases in the laboratory but for the detection of carrier animal with low bacteremia, microscopy with 100 fields is preferable to Microscopy with 50 fields and molecular methods such as PCR-RFLP can be used as a safe method for identifying cattle persistently infected with A. marginale.


Noaman V.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural resources
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2012

Attached ticks and blood samples were collected from 150 sheep in Isfahan province, central part of Iran. Blood samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Of the 150 sheep examined, 50 (33. 33%) were found positive for Anaplasma ovis by PCR-RFLP. Of 50 sheep naturally infected with A. ovis, 553 ixodid ticks were collected. The ticks were identified (three species belonging to two genera) as follows: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (53. 9%), Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (27. 5%), and Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (18. 6%). All A. ovis-infected sheep were infested with R. sanguineus. This suggests that R. sanguineus may be one of the main vectors of sheep anaplasmosis in the central part of Iran. © 2012 Springer-Verlag London Limited.


Karimzadeh J.,Imperial College London | Karimzadeh J.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Hardie J.,Imperial College London | Wright D.J.,Imperial College London
Journal of Insect Behavior | Year: 2013

Understanding the factors influencing host-selection behavior of parasitoids is essential in studies on host-parasitoid ecology and evolution, and in combining sustainable strategies of pest management, such as host-plant resistance and biological control. The effects of host-plant resistance on the olfactory response and parasitism success by Cotesia vestalis, a parasitoid of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae were examined. Here, it was demonstrated that host-plant resistance can strongly influence foraging behavior and parasitism success of the parasitoid. In olfactometer experiments, C. vestalis did not differentiate between crucifer plant types with similar levels of susceptibility or resistance to P. xylostella but showed a strong preference for susceptible compared with partially-resistant host plants. The influence of previous oviposition activity varied with the host-plant type experienced by the parasitoid. In cage experiments, C. vestalis preferred to parasitize P. xylostella larvae on a susceptible plant compared with larvae on a partially resistant host plant when exposed to hosts for 24 h. However, this preference appeared to be transitory, and was not found after 96 h exposure. The present study suggests that combining partial host-plant resistance with biological control by C. vestalis for the control of P. xylostella may in some circumstances be antagonistic and negatively affect parasitism success. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Toghyani M.,Islamic Azad University at Khorasgan | Gheisari A.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources | Ghalamkari G.,Islamic Azad University at Khorasgan | Eghbalsaied S.,Islamic Azad University at Khorasgan
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

This study was performed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with cinnamon and garlic powder as growth promoter agents on performance, carcase traits, immune responses, serum biochemistry, haematological parameters and thigh meat sensory evaluation in broilers. A total of 288, day-old male broilers (Ross 308) were randomly assigned to six treatments with four replicates. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet as control, antibiotic group receiving 3. mg/kg flavophospholipol, 2 and 4. g/kg cinnamon or garlic powder added to the basal diet. Body weights of broilers were measured at 1, 14, 28 and 42. days, feed intake was measured at the same periods and feed conversion was calculated, accordingly. At day 42 two birds per replicate were slaughtered for determination of carcase and organ weights and also meat sensory evaluation. Supplementing 2. g/kg cinnamon increased body weight of broilers at 28 and 42. days of age (P< 0.05). FCR was calculated to be significantly lower in all treatments compared to the control birds at 28. day period. Feed intake, feed efficiency, internal organ weights and carcase characteristics were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments at 42. day. None of the immune related parameters was statistically different among treatments. Broilers fed 4. g/kg garlic powder, had a significantly lower concentration of serum LDL cholesterol and elevated HDL cholesterol at day 42 (P< 0.05). Serum SGPT enzyme was reduced markedly (P< 0.05) in 4. g/kg cinnamon group but serum protein, albumin, triglyceride and SGOT were not affected by dietary treatments. Garlic powder significantly increased red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit percentage compared to the control group (P< 0.05). Sensory evaluation of thigh meat displayed no abnormal odor or flavour in meat induced by feed additives. The results suggested that dietary inclusion of 2. g/kg cinnamon can be applied as alternatives to in-feed antibiotics for broiler diets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Babaei S.,Isfahan University of Technology | Talebi M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Bahar M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Zeinali H.,Isfahan Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), one of the most expensive spices in the world, is used mainly as food coloring and flavoring in food industry and its effective components are also used in medicine. In this study genetic diversity among 28 saffron accessions collected from different regions of Iran was evaluated using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Nineteen SRAP primer combinations amplified a total of 147 polymorphic fragments with an average of 7.74 fragments per each primer combination and average of polymorphic information content (PIC) of 0.15. Cluster analysis using Neighbor-Joining method divided the accessions into four groups with most of them clustered in a major group. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that cluster analysis is more appropriate for revealing genetic relationship of saffron accessions. The close relationships among saffron accessions revealed in this study can be due to vegetative propagation, human selection of superior genotypes and existence of narrow genetic base of saffron. The results confirmed that the SRAP markers are powerful tools and effective marker system for evaluation of genetic diversity among saffron accessions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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