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Keshavarzi B.,Shiraz University | Moore F.,Shiraz University | Ansari M.,Shiraz University | Rastegari Mehr M.,Shiraz University | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

The distribution of 10 macronutrients and trace metals in the arable soils of Isfahan Province, their phytoavailability, and associated health risks were investigated; 134 plant and 114 soil samples (from 114 crop fields) were collected and analyzed at harvesting time. Calculation of the soil pollution index (SPI) revealed that arable soil polluted by metals was more severe in the north and southwest of the study area. The results of cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cu share a similar origin from industries and traffic. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the sampled crops were found in the order of K > Ca > S > Mg > P and Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb, respectively, whereas calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of the investigated elements in crops was generally in the order of S ≈ K > P > Mg > Ca and Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Fe, respectively. Thus, various parameters including crop species and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil also affected the bioavailability of the elements besides the total element contents in soil. Daily intake (DI) values of elements were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) levels in rice grains except for Fe and Mn, but for wheat grains, all elements displayed DI values higher than the RDI. Moreover, based on the hazard index (HI) values, inhabitants are experiencing a significant potential health risk solely due to the consumption of wheat and rice grains (particularly wheat grains). Mn health quotient (HQ) also indicated a high risk of Mn absorption for crop consumer inhabitants. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Esmaeili A.,Shiraz University | Moore F.,Shiraz University | Keshavarzi B.,Shiraz University | Jaafarzadeh N.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences | Kermani M.,Isfahan Environmental Protection Office
Catena | Year: 2014

There is a growing public concern about the potential accumulation of heavy metals in agricultural soils of Iran. This is mainly the result of rapid urban, mining and industrial discordant development over the last several decades, which has jeopardized the ecology, food safety, human health, and sustainable development of agriculture. To investigate the soil pollution, a total of 105 agricultural soil samples and 40 background soil samples were collected from the Isfahan industrial zone. Accordingly, total concentrations of 7 heavy metals (including Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Co and Cr), associated with Al, Fe, Mn and some physicochemical properties of soils were determined. The geochemical background and threshold was predicted using the Median Absolute Deviation (MAD) method. The median concentrations of heavy metals in agricultural soil were nearly similar to those of background soil, with some outlier data in the vicinity of the industrial and mining areas. Based on correlation coefficient and factor analyses, the primary source of Ni, Co, Cr, Fe and Al was determined to be geogenic, whereas the source of Pb, Zn and Cd is substantially controlled by anthropic activity. Our observations proved that in the Isfahan industrial zone, both human and natural sources affect the concentrations of Cu and Mn. Maps of heavy metal pollution indices in agricultural soils reveal high level of pollution in the vicinity of BamaPb-Zn mining area along with Esfahan and Mobarakeh Iron-Steel plants. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Soltani N.,Shiraz University | Keshavarzi B.,Shiraz University | Moore F.,Shiraz University | Tavakol T.,Shiraz University | And 3 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

This study investigates trace elements and PAHs content in road dust of Isfahan metropolis, central Iran. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn are 22.15, 2.14, 182.26, 66.63, 393.33, 6.95 and 707.19mgkg-1, respectively. When compared with upper continental crust, the samples generally display elevated trace element concentrations, except for Co and Cr. The decreasing trend of calculated enrichment factors (EFs) is Cd>Pb>Sb>Zn>Cu>As>Ni>Cr>Co. Calculated potential ecological risk reveals that among the analyzed metals, Cd and Pb, have a higher potential ecological risk. Statistically, two identified main sources of trace elements include road traffic emissions and resuspension of soil particles. As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn in Isfahan road dust are strongly influenced by anthropogenic activity, mainly traffic emissions, while Co, Cr and Ni originate from resuspension of soil natural parent particles. The sum of 13 major PAHs (∑13PAHs) mass concentration ranges from 184.64 to 3221.72μgkg-1 with the mean being 1074.58μgkg-1. PAHs sources are identified using PCA analysis. It is demonstrated that the PAHs in Isfahan road dust are mainly derived from traffic emission, coal combustion and petroleum. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) of PAHs in the road dust ranges between 25.021μgkg-1 and 230.893μgkg-1. High correlation coefficients (r2=0.909 and 0.822, p<0.01) between Benzo[a]pyrene, Benzo[b+k]fluoranthene and toxicity equivalent concentrations of road dust indicate that Benzo[a]pyrene and Benzo[b+k]fluoranthenes are major TEQ contributors. The total incremental life time cancer risk (ILCR) of exposure to PAHs from Isfahan metropolis urban dust is 4.85×10-4 for adult and 5.02×10-4 for children. Estimated results of ILCR indicate that Isfahan residents are potentially exposed to high cancer risk via both dust ingestion and dermal contact. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Assari R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Modaresi M.R.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Javanmard S.H.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Lahijanzadeh A.,Isfahan Environmental Protection Office | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Isfahan Medical School | Year: 2010

Background: Studying the effects of environmental factors on the early stages of development and progression of atherosclerosis process can serve as a guide for future studies and offer strategies for primary prevention of chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess the relationship of air pollution and plasma surrogate endothelial markers in the pediatric age group. Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 involving 118 children and adolescents aged 10-18 years randomly selected from different areas of Isfahan city, the second large and air-polluted city in Iran. The association of air pollutants' levels with serum thrombomodulin (TM) and tissue factor (TF) was determined. Findings: A significant relationship between TF and Pollution Standard Index (PSI) was found. This relationship was remarkable with PM level, although we could find this relationship more or less with other gasses as well. In this study, no significant relationship was found between TM and PSI. Conclusion: The relationship of air pollution level with the inflammation system and subsequently coagulation factors can be an important factor in atherosclerosis development from early life. This finding should be confirmed in future longitudinal studies and must be given due attention in preventive policies. Source

Keshavarzi B.,Shiraz University | Moore F.,Shiraz University | Rastmanesh F.,Shiraz University | Kermani M.,Isfahan Environmental Protection Office
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Following the appearance of symptoms of arsenic toxicity in the inhabitants of villages in the Muteh gold mining region, central Iran, the concentration of this element in various parts of biogeochemical cycle is investigated. For this purpose, rock, groundwater, soil, plant, livestock hair and wool, and human hair samples are collected and analysed. Total arsenic content ranges from 23 to 2,500 mg/kg in rock samples, 7-1,061 μg/l in water, 12-232 mg/kg in soil, 0.5-16 mg/kg in plant samples, 4.10-5.69 mg/kg in livestock hair and wool, and 0.64-5.82 mg/kg in human hair. Arsenic concentration in various parts of biogeochemical cycle near the gold deposit in a metamorphic complex, and also close to the gold-processing plant, is very high and decreases exponentially with increasing distance from them. Arsenic concentration in water from a well close to the Muteh gold mine is above 1 mg/L. Arsenic in hair samples taken from local inhabitants is above the recommended levels, and the control samples in Shahre-Kord city. Arsenic concentration is higher in male population and correlates positively with age. It is suggested that arsenic resulting from the decomposition of ore mineral such as orpiment (As 2S 3), realgar (As 2S 2) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS) is responsible for polluting natural resources and the human intake via drinking water and the food chain. Gold mining and processing has undoubtedly enhanced the release of arsenic and intensified the observed adverse effects in Muteh area. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

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