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Nagashima M.,Yamaguchi University | Nishio-Hamane D.,University of Tokyo | Tomita N.,Ehime University | Minakawa T.,Ehime University | Inaba S.,ISE Corporation
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2015

The new REE-rich, monoclinic, epidote-supergroup minerals ferriakasakaite-(La) and ferriandrosite-(La), found in tephroite calcite veinlets cutting the stratiform ferromanganese deposit from the Shobu area, Ise City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, were studied using electron microprobe analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Ferriakasakaite-(La), ideally A1Ca A2La M1Fe3+M2Al M3Mn2+(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH) (Z = 2, space group P21/m), has a new combination of dominant cations at A1(Ca) and M3(Mn2+), which are the key sites to determine a root name for epidote-supergroup minerals. The unit-cell parameters are a = 8.8733(2), b = 5.7415(1), c = 10.0805(3) Å, β = 113.845(2)° and V = 469.73(2) Å3. According to the structural refinement (R 1 = 3.13%), the determined structural formula is A1(Ca0.54Mn2+ 0.46) A2[(La0.48Ce0.20Pr0.07Nd0.18Gd0.02)∑0.95Ca0.05] M1(Fe3+ 0.42V3+ 0.34Al0.18Ti4+ 0.06) M2(Al0.96Fe3+ 0.04) M3(Mn2+ 0.50Fe2+ 0.43Mg0.07)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH). Ferriandrosite-(La), ideally A1Mn2+ A2La M1Fe3+M2Al M3Mn2+(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH) (Z = 2, space group P21/m), is the M1Fe3+ analogue of androsite. The unit-cell parameters are a = 8.8779(1), b = 5.73995(1), c = 10.0875(2) Å, β = 113.899(1)° and V = 469.97(2) Å3, and the structural formula is A1(Mn2+ 0.56Ca0.44) A2[(La0.49Ce0.20Pr0.08Nd0.19Gd0.02)∑0.97Ca0.03] M1(Fe3+ 0.40V3+ 0.28Al0.20Fe2+ 0.05Ti4+ 0.07) M2(Al0.97Fe3+ 0.03) M3(Mn2+ 0.50Fe2+ 0.40Mg0.10)(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH) (R1 = 2.93%). The two new minerals, which are compositionally very similar overall, are distinguished by occupancy of A1, Ca vs. Mn2+. The structural properties of these minerals depend not only on the REE content at A2, but also on the Mn content at A1. © 2015 Mineralogical Society. Source


Nagashima M.,Yamaguchi University | Nishio-Hamane D.,University of Tokyo | Tomita N.,Ehime University | Minakawa T.,Ehime University | Inaba S.,ISE Corporation
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2013

The new mineral, vanadoallanite-(La), found in the stratiform ferromanganese deposit from the Shobu area, Ise City, Mie Prefecture, Japan, was studied using electron microprobe analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. Vanadoallanite-(La) is a rare-earth element-rich monoclinic epidote-supergroup mineral with simplified formula CaLaV3+AlFe 2+(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH) (Z = 2, space group P21/m) characterized by predominantly V3+ at one of three octahedral sites, M1. The crystal studied shows large V (∼8.4 V 2O3 wt.%), Fe (∼13.8 Fe2O3 wt.%; Fe2+/total Fe = 0.58) and Mn (∼8.8 MnO wt.%) contents. A small amount of Ti is also present (∼1.3 TiO2 wt.%). Structural refinement converged to R 1 = 2.96%. The unit-cell parameters are a = 8.8985(2), b = 5.7650(1), c = 10.1185(2) Å, β = 114.120(1) and V = 473.76(2) Å3. The cation distributions determined at A1,A2 and M3 are Ca0.61Mn0.39, (La0.46Ce 0.14Pr0.07Nd0.18)Σ0.85Ca 0.15 and Fe2+ 0.56Mn2+ 0.30Mg0.06V3+ 0.05Fe3+ 0.03, respectively. On the other hand, depending on Ti assignment, two different schemes of the cation distribution at M1 and M2 can be considered: (1) M 1(V3+ 0.58Fe3+ 0.34Ti4+ 0.08) M 2(Al0.92Fe3+ 0.08), and (2) M1(V3+ 0.58Fe3+ 0.42) M 2(Al0.92Ti4+ 0.08). In both cases, the dominant cations at A1, A2, M1, M2 and M3 are Ca, La, V 3+, Al and Fe2+, respectively. According to ionic radius, Ti4+ possibly prefers M2 rather than Fe3+. A large Mn 2+ content at A1 also characterizes our vanadoallanite-(La). The structural change of Mn2+-rich allanite-group minerals is considered to be controlled by two main factors. One is the large Mn2+ content at A1 in vanadoallanite-(La), which modifies the topology of the A1O9 polyhedron. The other is the expansion of M3O6 and M1O6 octahedra caused by large octahedral cations, such as Fe2+ and Mn2+, at M3 and the trivalent transition elements, V3+ and Fe3+, at M1. © 2013 Mineralogical Society. Source


An energy storage cell pack cradle assembly for holding multiple rows of energy storage cells oriented along a dominant axis of vibration includes a first cradle member including a plurality of energy storage cell body supporting structures including respective holes; a second cradle member including a plurality of energy storage cell body supporting structures including respective holes; and one or more fasteners connecting the first cradle member and the second cradle member together. The energy storage cell body supporting structures are configured to structurally support the energy storage cells, with the energy storage cells oriented along a dominant axis of vibration, by energy storage cell bodies of the energy storage cells with respective electrically conductive terminals extending through the respective holes without structural support of the electrically conductive terminals by the cradle members.


The present disclosure provides a method and system for powering a hybrid electric vehicle with a fuel cell, and in particular, efficiently initiating power generation in the fuel cell, the method and system comprising electrically connecting a battery to an ultracapacitor-based propulsion energy storage; using the battery to charge the propulsion energy storage to a predetermined voltage level for powering an air delivery compressor for a predetermined amount of time; disconnecting the battery from the propulsion energy storage; electrically connecting the propulsion energy storage to the air delivery compressor; operating the air delivery compressor using the charge on the propulsion energy storage to provide a predetermined quantity of air to the fuel cell; and causing the fuel cell to generate electricity.


A start-stop or idle-stop method for a heavy-duty hybrid vehicle that turns off the fuel supply while maintaining the crankshaft rotation of the internal combustion engine when the vehicle stops or, optionally, when the vehicle travels downhill, travels in a noise sensitive location, travels in an exhaust emissions sensitive location, or operates in an emergency situation. The stop-start or idle-stop method automatically turns on the engine fuel supply to restart combustion when the vehicle starts accelerating, is no longer traveling downhill, is no longer traveling in a noise sensitive or exhaust sensitive location, is no longer in an emergency situation, or has dropped below the minimum energy storage restart level. The stop-start or idle-stop may be inhibited upon certain override conditions.

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