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Daou C.,State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology | Daou C.,Jiangnan University | Daou C.,ISA University | Zhang H.,State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology | Zhang H.,Jiangnan University
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

Response surface methodology was used to optimize the processing parameters for extraction of total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) of defatted rice bran (DRB). The studied independent factors were concentration of NaOH solution (varying from 0.15 to 0.25 mol/L), soaking time (from 60 to 90 min), α-amylase enzyme-substrate (E: S) ratio (from 0.6:100 to 0.9:100 g: g of dry DRB) and alcalase enzyme concentration (from 3.5:100 to 4.7 g: g of dry DRB)) whereas; the dependent variables were extraction yield and purity of TDF, IDF and SDF. Therefore, the three- level four-factor Box-Behnken design was used to establish the optimum conditions and the generated regression quadratic polynomial models and adequacy of each dependent variable were significant (p < 0.0001) with regression coefficient R2 (> 0.90) and lack of-fit was not significant. Moreover, ANOVA showed that most of the linear, interaction and quadratic regression coefficient values were significant (p < 0.05). The optimum processing parameters observed for extraction of TDF, IDF and SDF with high yield and purity were: 0.15 mol/L NaOH solution concentration, 64.3 min soaking time, 0.68:100 and 3.52:100 (g: g) α-amylase and alcalase enzyme-substrate ratio (E: S), respectively. Moreover, the alkali pretreatment was the factor amongst the others that significantly (p<0.05) affected the purity of Fiber fractions but did not contribute to improve their yields.


PubMed | ISA University, CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura and University Miguel Hernández
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in plant science | Year: 2015

Sufficient nutrient application is one of the most important factors in producing quality citrus fruits. One of the main guides in planning citrus fertilizer programs is by directly monitoring the plant nutrient content. However, this requires analysis of a large number of leaf samples using expensive and time-consuming chemical techniques. Over the last 5 years, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to quantitatively estimate certain nutritional elements in citrus leaves by using the spectral reflectance values, obtained by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). This technique is rapid, non-destructive, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Therefore, the estimation of macro and micronutrients in citrus leaves by this method would be beneficial in identifying the mineral status of the trees. However, to be used effectively NIRS must be evaluated against the standard techniques across different cultivars. In this study, NIRS spectral analysis, and subsequent nutrient estimations for N, K, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn concentration, were performed using 217 leaf samples from different citrus trees species. Partial least square regression and different pre-processing signal treatments were used to generate the best estimation against the current best practice techniques. It was verified a high proficiency in the estimation of N (Rv = 0.99) and Ca (Rv = 0.98) as well as achieving acceptable estimation for K, Mg, Fe, and Zn. However, no successful calibrations were obtained for the estimation of B, Cu, and Mn.


Silfrany R.O.,ISA University | Caba R.E.,ISA University | Solis De Los Santos F.,ISA University | Hanning I.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2013

In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 mg/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó , Puñal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection.


Moscoso S.,ISA University | De Los Santos F.S.,ISA University | Andino A.G.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Diaz-Sanchez S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Hanning I.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2015

Previously, we reported the use of quinolones in broiler chickens resulted in residues in retail poultry meat obtained from nine districts in the Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic. Residues in poultry products are a concern due to consumer allergies and the potential to develop antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the use of quinolones in poultry production and our previous findings in poultry meat, the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of quinolone residues in eggs. Samples were collected from 48 different farms located in three of the four municipalities (Moca, Cayetano Germosén, and Jamao) of the Espaíllat Province. Each farm was sampled three times between July and September for a total of 144 samples. Samples were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for quinolone residues using the Equinox test. Operation systems (cage or floor), seasonality, and location were considered along with egg-producer sizes that were defined as small scale, <30,000 eggs per day; medium scale, 30,000 to 60,000 eggs per day; or large scale, >60,000 eggs per day. From small-, medium-, and large-scale producers, 69, 50, and 40% of samples were positive for quinolone residues, respectively. A greater number of samples were positive (61%) in floor-laying hen producers compared with those using cages (40%). In the Jamao municipality, 67% of the samples were positive compared with Moca and Cayetano Germosén, where 56 and 25% of samples were positive, respectively. Sampling time had an effect on percent positives: samples collected in July, August, and September were 71, 19, and 63% positive, respectively. Overall, 51% of the samples obtained from eggs produced in the province of Espaíllat were positive for quinolone residues at levels higher than the maximum limits for edible tissue established by the regulatory agencies, including the European Union and U.S. Department of Agriculture. The results obtained from this research confirmed the presence of quinolone residue in eggs, which may present a health risk to some consumers. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection


Cetina M.,University of Zagreb | Stefanic Z.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Makarevic J.,Ruder Boskovic Institute | Nura-Lama A.,ISA University
Journal of Chemical Crystallography | Year: 2015

In this paper, inter- or intra-molecular induced oxazolidine ring opening of two bicyclic nucleosides during recrystallisation are presented. The structures of these two compounds, azide derivative 2 and -NHBz derivative 3, as well as bicyclic O-trityl derivative 1, have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. The aim of this work was to understand the influence of structural differences of dihydrothymines on their supramolecular assemblies. In the crystal structure of 1, which crystallized with one ethanol molecule in the asymmetric unit, O-H···N and C-H···O intermolecular hydrogen bonds form two-dimensional network. One C-H···π interaction extends two-dimensional network into three-dimensional. Supramolecular structure of 2 is a three-dimensional network formed by N-H···O, O-H···O, C-H···N and C-H···O hydrogen bonds. Compound 3 crystallized with two independent molecules and two water molecules in the asymmetric unit and displays the greatest number of intermolecular interactions. Interestingly, although N-H···O, O-H···N, O-H···O and C-H···O hydrogen bonds are formed, as well as two C-H···π interactions, the result is only a two-dimensional network. Graphical Abstract: In this paper crystal structures of three dihydrothymine derivatives which built different supramolecular architectures are presented and it is shown how weak interaction, such as C-H···π interaction, can form higher-order supramolecular structure, from two-dimensional to three-dimensional network.[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Freitas F.,New University of Lisbon | Alves V.D.,ISA University | Reis M.A.M.,New University of Lisbon
Trends in Biotechnology | Year: 2011

A vast number of bacterial extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) have been reported over recent decades, and their composition, structure, biosynthesis and functional properties have been extensively studied. Despite the great diversity of molecular structures already described for bacterial EPSs, only a few have been industrially developed. The main constraints to full commercialization are their production costs, mostly related to substrate cost and downstream processing. In this article, we review EPS biosynthetic and fermentative processes, along with current downstream strategies. Limitations and constraints of bacterial EPS development are stressed and correlation of bacterial EPS properties with polymer applications is emphasized. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Freitas F.,New University of Lisbon | Alves V.D.,ISA University | Torres C.A.V.,New University of Lisbon | Cruz M.,New University of Lisbon | And 4 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2011

Enterobacter strain A47 (DSM 23139) was found to produce a fucose-containing exopolysaccharide (EPS). The EPS is composed of fucose, galactose, glucose, pyruvate, succinate and acetate in the molar ratios 1.6:1.3:1.1:1.2:0.7:1.5. It is a high molecular weight (5.8 × 10 6) homogeneous biopolymer, as indicated by the low polydispersity value (1.3). The steady shear flow properties of the EPS aqueous solutions are similar to guar gum and fucogel, and its viscoelastic properties indicate the formation of viscous aqueous solutions with entangled polymer chains. Additionally, the EPS has demonstrated good flocculating and emulsion stabilizing capacities, comparable to some commercially available products. These functional properties make the fucose-containing EPS a good alternative to many synthetic polymers, as well as other natural polysaccharides, in several applications in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, textile, paper and petroleum industries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | CAMAG Laboratory, ISA University, CIBLOT, Montpellier University and Université des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku
Type: | Journal: BMC complementary and alternative medicine | Year: 2016

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which is rising globally in rich and developing countries. In the African region this rate is the highest, with 20 million diagnosed diabetics. Despite a noticeable progress in the treatment of diabetes mellitus by synthetic drugs, the search for new natural anti-diabetic agents is going on. Nauclea diderrichii (De Wild.) Merr. (ND) and Sarcocephalus pobeguinii Hua ex Pellegr. (SP) are used as traditional medicines in Gabon for the treatment of different diseases, especially in the case of diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of these two medicinal plants traditionally used in Gabon.Pharmacological (inhibitory action on and -glucosidases) and toxicological (effect on human T cell proliferation) studies were conducted on aqueous extracts of ND (leaves and bark) and SP (bark) collected in Gabon. All raw extracts were analyzed by HPTLC and their content in phenolic compounds was determined by using standard method. The most active extracts were submitted to preparative HPLC in order to evidence the most efficient subfractions by biological evaluation.The results showed that two extracts from ND were potent -glucosidase inhibitors, the leaf extract being more active that the bark extract: the first one was more than 60 fold more active than Acarbose, which is an oral medication used to treat type 2 diabetes; the extract from SP bark was less efficient. The HPLC subfractions of the extracts of ND leaves and SP bark were tested in the same experimental conditions. In each case, the most active subfractions still show very potent inhibitory effect on -glucosidase (80-90% inhibition at 0.1 mg/mL). The most efficient extract, from ND leaves, was also characterized by the highest percentage of phenolic compounds, which suggests a relationship between its inhibitory potential on -glucosidase and its content in phenolic compounds. Conversely, only a moderate inhibitory activity of the three extracts was observed on -glucosidase.These results clearly indicated that active compounds present in N. diderrichii and S. pobeguinii leaves or/and bark were selective and highly potent inhibitors of -glucosidase and validate their popular use for the treatment of diabetes.


Rama M.,ISA University | Sadiku A.,ISA University | Maksuti R.,ISA University
International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference Surveying Geology and Mining Ecology Management, SGEM | Year: 2015

Piping for water transportation are very important part of technological equipment for generating electricity in power plants Kosova-A. Damage to the pipes are caused by: improper use of equipment, long-term exploitation, corrosion and change of structuremicrostructure of the steel material. Results show that 2/3 of damages resulting from corrosion of pipes. Corrosion is caused especially by the presence of aggressive substances in the water being transported through these pipes. Corrosion affecting the degradation of the pipes microstructure of ferritic steel causes the changes of hardness and mechanical properties of the material. In the paper are presented the results of the survey damage from corrosion, corrosion type depending on the composition of the water. Obtained results, showed that the treated water should not contain more than 2.52 mg/l - organic matter, 4.6 mg/l - SiO2, 0.05 mg/l -Fe, and turbidity should not be higher than 2.95 NTU. Also, are investigating hardness and microstructure of materials including pipes affected by corrosion. Hardness of pipes materials is investigated with Vickers method, while microstructure of materials and products of corrosion was observed by optical microscopy. © SGEM 2015 All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | ISA University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food protection | Year: 2013

In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 g/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bison, Pual, Villa Gonzlez, Licey, Jnico, and San Jos De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers.

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