De Herralde F.,IRTA Torre Marimon |
Save R.,IRTA Torre Marimon |
Pla E.,Center for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications |
Nadal M.,Vitiviniculture Research Group |
Lopez-Bustins J.A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012
In the last decades, viticulture in the Mediterranean has been improved by agronomic methods based on ecophysiological and genetic knowledge of the cultivated species. The Mediterranean ecosystem is characterized by a double stress. Climatic phenomena such as variation of some atmospheric circulation patterns are affecting weather conditions at regional level. Some models are generating scenarios of climate change that show how this region will be affected by an increase of the duration and the frequency of dry periods. Consequently, plant growth, yield and quality would be affected. It is known that global change and the associated climate change, together with an annual increase in the variability of the viticulture sector, due to economical conditions, will increase the vulnerability in this sector. Worldwide, viticulturists have found the optimal grape maturity correlated with the sugar content and have usually been using the ratio sugars/acids as an indication of the ripeness degree for determining when the grapes are ready to be harvested. Nowadays, to improve the quality of red wines, it is crucial to get information about the concentration and quality of the phenolic compounds of the skins and seeds of berries, since they are affected by drought. The objective of the present work is firstly to study the relationship between climate and alcohol degree of wines from vineyards placed in an area of the Mediterranean basin, through the last 25 years (1984-2008). We also have taken into consideration several changes associated with global change such as soil use, cultivars, etc. Results show only partial relationship between climate conditions and alcohol degree of red wines. These results can help to understand the potential changes in wine associated to climate change in the future and consequently to develop adaptive agronomical practices.
Mutke S.,CIFOR INIA |
Calama R.,CIFOR INIA |
Gonzalez-Martinez S.C.,CIFOR INIA |
Montero G.,CIFOR INIA |
And 3 more authors.
Horticultural Reviews | Year: 2012
The seeds of Mediterranean stone pine, Pinus pinea, have been consumed by humans since the Paleolithic era. Similarly to edible seeds from other Eurasiatic or American pines, Mediterranean pine nuts and cones assumed early cultural, symbolic, and spiritual attributes by local cultures. They were represented in Neolithic rock paintings and sacred in the ancient high cultures, especially relevant in Greco-Roman cults. Although stone pine is well known and has been planted since antiquity, pine nuts still are gathered mainly in natural forests, and only recently has the crop taken the first steps from wild harvested to domestication. Stone pine is a good candidate for conversion to a horticultural crop. Its pine nuts are among the most expensive nuts, whose high price has made them an attractive opportunity as alternative crop on rain-fed farmland in Mediterranean climates. The species performs well on poor soils and needs reduced cultural practices in comparison with alternative crops, it is affected by few pests or diseases, and it resists climate adversities such as drought and extreme or late frosts. The current knowledge about stone pine as a plantation nut crop in specific plantations is still limited. At shoot level, vegetative and reproductive vigor are associated in the same axes. This imposes an "expanding crown"ideotype that limits the potential selection of highly productive dwarf cultivars for a modern, intensive, high-density horticultural system. The managed grafted trials with selected genotypes indicate that productivity of the forest land where these are located can be increased several-fold in comparison with yields in traditional stone pine forests. The stone pine has potential as a crop in agroforestry systems; in tree lines, such as shelterbelts adjacent to farmland or pastures; or in proper low-density orchard plantations. The ongoing standardization of the processing and the finished product might extend its use as a crop in Mediterranean climate zones around the world. © 2012 Wiley-Blackwell. Published 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Funes I.,IRTA Torre Marimon |
Aranda X.,IRTA Torre Marimon |
Biel C.,IRTA Torre Marimon |
Carbo J.,IRTA Mas Badia Foundation |
And 5 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016
Chilling temperatures are important in apple and other fruit production because they are needed to break full dormancy, which is a prerequisite for effective and synchronous bud-break and flowering. Temperature increase related to climate change could lead to inadequate chilling in certain areas, which could affect the suitability for some species or cultivars to survive or yield in that location. The aim of this study was to estimate how climate change could affect flowering date and, consequently, feasibility of the most significant apple cultivars in the lower Fluvià subbasin (correspondent to the Protected Geographical Indication "Poma de Girona"). The estimations are based on a chilling and forcing requirements approach for each apple cultivar in this region, through a statistical analysis. The chilling-forcing sequential model, together with meteorological projections based on two climate change scenarios (B1 and A2), were used to estimate apple flowering dates along the 21st Century. Results show, in general, that apple cultivars could suffer delays on flowering date since the mid century and they could present serious disorders as a consequence of insufficient chilling in the long term in A2 scenario, which could affect crop feasibility in the region. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.