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Font-i-Furnols M.,IRTA Product Quality | Brun A.,IRTA Product Quality | Tous N.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Tous N.,Rovira i Virgili University | Gispert M.,IRTA Product Quality
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems | Year: 2013

The intramuscular fat (IMF) content is related to the sensory acceptability of pork, and it can be non-destructively estimated using computed tomography (CT). The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential use of ordinary linear regression (OLR) of the relative volumes associated with ranges of Hounsfield (HU) values and partial least square (PLS) regression applied to the relative volumes associated with each individual HU value to predict the IMF content using data from one or two different tomograms. The tomograms were obtained from pork loins, and the relative volume associated with each HU value was calculated. The IMF was measured in the loins using a near infrared transmittance device. The best prediction of IMF was obtained by OLR when data from 2 tomograms were used (R2=0.83 and RMSEPCV=0.46%). The results suggest that CT has good potential for measuring the IMF in loins and that the accuracy improves when the data from 2 tomograms were combined. The use of partial volumes as predictors with OLR allows for improved accuracy compared to the use of all of the individual volumes with PLS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Font-i-Furnols M.,IRTA Monells | Tous N.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Esteve-Garcia E.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Gispert M.,IRTA Monells
Meat Science | Year: 2012

Several reports show that intramuscular fat (IMF) and/or marbling affect the sensory acceptability of meat. The aim of the present work was to (1) investigate using Spanish consumers the eating and visual acceptability of pork with different levels of IMF, (2) understand more about this acceptability by studying segments of consumers and (3) determine which fresh pork characteristics are important at the point of purchase. Loin section (n = 40) were sorted into four IMF groups: 0.96 ± 0.30% (G1), 2.11 ± 0.07% (G2), 3.72 ± 0.26% (G3), and 5.78 ± 0.19% (G4). Consumers (n = 200) evaluated the acceptability, tenderness and juiciness of cooked loin chops from each IMF group and then ranked raw chops according to visual preference. Two groups of consumers - 'lean loin lovers' (55.5%) and 'marbled loin lovers' (44.5%) - were identified based on their visual preferences; however, according to their eating acceptability scores, all the consumers preferred loins with higher IMF levels. Accordingly, the minimum IMF content recommended to ensure a good taste is between 2.2% and 3.4%. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Lizardo R.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Tous N.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Sampsonis C.,Lesaffre Feed Additives | D'Inca R.,Lesaffre Feed Additives | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Digestive microflora is partly responsible for physiological gut conditions. Measurements of redox potential (Eh) and pH of digesta may give a basis for understanding microbial activity and dynamics of fermentation. However, few studies have assessed the Eh of the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. Twenty-four pigs of 30 kg BW were slaughtered to measure Eh and pH of cecum content in situ and to obtain samples of ileum, cecum, and colon contents for Vfadeterminations. Pigs had previously been fed with a nonmedicated starter feed for 5 wk. Measurements of Eh and pH were recorded first at 2 min and then at 5-min intervals for 35 min to estimate kinetics and the delay to reach stabilization of the Eh value. Cecum Eh rapidly decreased (P < 0.001) from -115 to -180 mV after 15 min of insertion of the electrodes and then slowly decreased until -185 mV at 35 min. Cecal pH started at 5.74 and decreased (P < 0.01) slowly afterwards until 5.53 after 35 min. The Eh value after stabilization was negatively correlated (r = -0.64; P < 0.001) with final pH. Acetic, propionic, and butyric acids accounted for 58.7, 24.0, and 12.8%, respectively, of total Vfaproduction of cecum content. The Vfaproduction of ileal content was lower (P < 0.001) when compared to cecum or colon (50.8, 142.1, and 130.8 μmol/g, respectively) and a higher proportion of formic and lactic acids was detected (32.3 and 27.0%, respectively). Proportions of acetic and propionic acids were negatively (r = -0.53; P < 0.01) and positively (r = 0.66; P < 0.001) correlated with Eh, respectively. In conclusion, Eh measured after stabilization seemed to be a meaningful predictor of hindgut fermentative activity. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source


Tous N.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Lizardo R.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Theil P.K.,University of Aarhus | Vila B.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2014

Nutritional strategies like reduction of dietary vitamin A have been proposed with the aim of increasing intramuscular fat (IMF) and improving the meat quality. The purpose of the study was to evaluate if reduction of dietary vitamin A would increase IMF, without affecting backfat deposition and pig performance parameters. Forty eight barrows were fed diets with different vitamin A levels: without supplemental vitamin A (0 IU vitamin A /kg; n=16), a level close to the requirement of NRC (1998) (1250 IU vitamin A/kg; n=16) or a level typically used in commercial formulation (5000. IU vitamin A/kg; n=16). The treatment without supplemental vitamin A did not affect growth performance parameters, only a trend to increase final body weight was observed when compared with animals fed with vitamin A in the diet. However, reduced perirenal fat and a trend to increase muscle depth between the 3th and 4th ribs was observed in the animals fed the diet with no supplemental vitamin A. These results suggested a reduction of fatness when vitamin A was omitted in the diet, contrary to the initial hypothesis. Intramuscular fat content was not affected by the reduction of the dietary vitamin A levels below the requirements; in fact the trend was opposite to the original hypothesis. The content of retinol in the liver was increased when the animals were fed higher levels of dietary vitamin A but animals fed without vitamin A diet also produced retinol, although in a reduced amount, which could explain the lack of effects of vitamin A reduction on performance. When comparing 5000. IU/kg with 0. IU/kg diets, only a trend in reduced expression of PPARα without impaired modification on fat content was observed in longissimus muscle. From this study, it can be concluded that omitting supplemented vitamin A does not affect performance, decreases perirenal fat and possibly overall fat deposition, without a significant reduction on IMF, contrary to the original hypothesis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Badia R.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Badia R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Lizardo R.,IRTA Monogastric Nutrition | Martinez P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

Gums and yeast cells are natural mannose-rich products that can be used as subtracts for adhesion of gram-negative bacteria. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of dietary locust bean gum (LBG; Salmosan, ITPSA, Spain) or live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc47; Actisaf, Lesaffre, France) as immunological enhancers of the intestinal function of piglets. Treatments included a noninfected group fed with a control diet and 4 other groups orally challenged with 1x108 cfuof Escherichia coli K88. The challenged groups were fed the control or the control diet supplemented with colistin, LBG, or yeast. Twenty-five Landrace × Duroc piglets weaned at 4 wk were used. The animals were group housed, challenged on day 14, and euthanized 2 d later. Blood, bile, ileum, and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) samples were obtained for analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP), secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4). Challenge increased the level of CRP of piglets fed the control diet, but this did not happen in the piglets fed the supplemented diets (P < 0.001). Challenge upregulated TLR2 in MLN and TLR4 in ileum and MLN (P < 0.05). This was prevented by yeast supplementation for the TLR2 in MLN and TLR4 in ileum. Pigs fed colistin and LBG diets showed intermediate but nonsignificant responses. In conclusion, the results suggest that colistin, live yeast, and LBG reduce the levels of CRP in blood of piglets challenged with E. coli, and yeast reduces the expression of Toll-like receptors in the intestine. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. Source

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