IRTA Mas de Bover

Constantí, Spain

IRTA Mas de Bover

Constantí, Spain
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Dicenta F.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Sanchez-Perez R.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Rubio M.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | Egea J.,CSIC - Center of Edafology and Applied Biology of the Segura | And 7 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

'Guara' has been the most planted almond cultivar in Spain in recent years. The introducers of this cultivar reported its origin as unknown and suggested that it is related to the Italian almond cultivar 'Tuono'. Indeed, the experience of farmers and researchers has revealed strong similarities between 'Guara' and 'Tuono'. In order to compare the identity of the two cultivars, their genetic profiles (fingerprints) were determined with a set of 12 SSR markers used to analyse the INRA clones of 'Guara' and 'Tuono' as well as two clones considered synonymous with 'Tuono', namely 'Supernova' and 'Mazzetto'. A supplementary set of 23 SSRs was also analysed in 'Guara' and 'Tuono' samples from different reference collections of CEBAS-CSIC (Murcia, Spain), INRA (Avignon, France), IRTA (Constantí, Spain), and the University of Bari (Bari, Italy). The results confirmed that 'Guara' and 'Tuono' present identical DNA fingerprints for the 35 SSRs analysed. This genotypic information together with the similar characteristics of the two cultivars demonstrates that Spanish 'Guara' is actually the same cultivar as the Italian 'Tuono'. © 2015.

Duran-Montge P.,CENTA | Barroeta A.C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Lizardo R.G.,IRTA. Mas de Bover | Esteve-Garcia E.,IRTA. Mas de Bover
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Dietary fatty acid composition has been shown to influence fat deposition in rodents, chickens and pigs. Results in pigs, however, have been less clear than in other species and may relate to the level of fat/oil added to the diet and the reporting of gross carcass composition instead of gravimetrically measured fat content. The objectives of the experiment were to study the effect of dietary fat composition on whole pig (carcass. +. viscera) fatty acid (FA) composition and to perform a whole-body balance in order to study de novo FA synthesis and the fate of essential FA. Seventy crossbred gilts (61.8 ± 5.2. kg BW) were divided into 10 animals per treatment. Pigs were fed one of seven treatments: a semi-synthetic diet formulated to contain a very low level of fat (NF) and six fat supplemented diets (10%) based on a barley-soybean meal. The supplemental fats were tallow (T), high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSF), sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil (LO), blend (FB) (55% tallow, 35% sunflower oil, and 10% linseed oil) and fish oil blend (FO) (40% fish oil and 60% linseed oil). In addition, 5 pigs were killed at 61.8. kg to measure body composition at the start of the balance period. Carcass and viscera fat content and FA composition were determined to perform a balance in pigs growing from 61.8 to approximately 100. kg BW. Whole-body FA composition reflected dietary treatments; viscera showed a high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Whole-body fat content of HOSF (26.7%) and SFO (26.7%) fed animals was higher than T (22.9%) fed animals (P< 0.05). The ratio of de novo FA synthesis (endogenous FA) of pigs fed the very low fat diet was 1.6:1.0:3.0 for palmitic, stearic and oleic acids, respectively. The different diets containing high amounts of polyunsaturated FA (SFO, LO and FO) showed deposition ratios (not catabolizated exogenous FA) of linoleic and linolenic acids between 64.8 and 66.5, and 62.9 and 64.1%, respectively, whereas deposition rates of arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were 33.6, 47.9 and 48.9%, respectively. Tissue content of eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid increased in the diets containing high levels of linolenic and linoleic acids (P< 0.05), respectively, but the diet containing high linolenic acid did not increase docosahexaenoic acid deposition (P< 0.05). In conclusion, dietary tallow lowers whole animal fat content as compared to sunflower oil and high-oleic sunflower oil diets. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Freixa E.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Gil J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Tous J.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Hermoso J.F.,IRTA Mas de Bover
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

This study performs a comparative analysis to evaluate the economic performance of two alternative production systems in the olive sector that have received a great deal of attention in the last years, from both researchers and olive oil decision groups, named intensive/high-density (HD) and super-high-density (SHD) systems. While, in average terms, intensive/high- density orchards are characterized by densities between 250 and 700 trees per ha, super-high-density orchards can present densities over 1,500 trees/ha (the hedgerow system). The average full yield in highdensity systems is around 6,000 kg/ha in rainfed orchards reaching about 10,000 kg/ha in irrigated land (normally using mechanical harvesting by trunk shakers). In the second alternative (SHD), similar yields are obtained although sooner than in the first system. However, the economic life of the SHD is shorter (around 15 years, while in the intensive system it can be more than 30 years) due to the lack of space and the competition among trees for light and ventilation inside the canopies. The data used in this study come from three alternative sources: 1) bibliographic review; 2) a questionnaire addressed to farmers; and 3) personal interviews with specialists in olive growing. These valuable information sources allowed us to gather the production costs and income from four alternative production systems: one intensive orchard (harvested with trunk shakers), two high-density orchards (harvested with Colossus and Colossus S) and one super-high-density field with a grape harvester. The economic assessment is evaluated through the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR, %), taking into account that the economic lives of the different alternatives are not the same. The results indicate that high-density economic ratios are more profitable than super-high-density ratios. However, the latter could be the most profitable option in large orchards with short-term investments, full harvest mechanization and reduced labor requirements.

Tous J.,EMP Agricola | Romero A.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Hermoso J.F.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Msallem M.,Institute Of Lolivier | Larbi A.,Institute Of Lolivier
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Diverse olive plantation systems are utilised throughout the Mediterranean and other world growing areas, especially in sloping, mountainous and flat areas. Recent important changes (1980s and 1990s), including the widespread introduction of new orchard designs related to harvest mechanisation, increased use of inputs (particularly chemical) and drip irrigation have considerably contributed to this diversity and these changes also influenced the oil quantity and quality. The various planting systems have very different performances regarding the economical viability and the environmental and social impact. This study describes the current and future situation of olive orchard designs, some cultural practices, mechanization and production costs of different olive growing areas of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (Mediterranean Basin and South America). The data in this study are taken from different alternative sources, such as bibliographic review, questionnaire and personal interviews addressed to researchers and consultants of different countries. These valuable information sources allowed the gathering of knowledge on the aspects involved in the orchard design (cultivars, training, densities, mechanization and yield potential), production costs and oil quality from three alternative production systems: intensive orchards (IS, 200-400 trees/ha), high-density orchards (HD, 400-700 trees/ha) and super-high-density orchards (SHD, over 1,500 trees/ha). The ecological, agronomic and cost assessment of these planting systems are compared between different orchard types from Spain (Andalusia and Catalonia), Portugal (Alentejo-Beja), Tunisia, Argentina (La Rioja and San Juan provinces) and Chile (regions III, IV and VII). A comparative study of three modern design orchards (IS, HD and SHD), growing in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, reveals differences between countries in the following variables: investment costs, economic life, yield potential, cultural and harvest costs and labour use. However, the planting model choice in each region depends on different factors such as ecological conditions, orchard size, manpower availability and the economic life investment. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Ferreira J.J.,Area de Cultivos Hortofruticolas y Forestales | Garcia-Gonzalez C.,Area de Cultivos Hortofruticolas y Forestales | Tous J.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Rovira M.,IRTA Mas de Bover
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) has been a traditional crop in northern Spain. As a result of germplasm exploration over 3 years (2003-05), 90 trees were selected in this region. This study describes phenotypic variation in nut and husk traits and investigates genetic relationships among selections and cultivars using inter simple sequences repeat (ISSR) markers. The local selections were phenotypically diverse and many had characteristics appreciated by the market. Eleven ISSR primers, which generated 66 polymorphic bands, were used in the analysis. The graph from principal coordinates analysis of the molecular marker data showed two main groups, one for the local selections and the other for the standard cultivars. The dendrogram generated from UPGMA cluster analysis showed the same two main groups. The results suggest that the local accessions are closely related to each other, but are relatively distant from the standard cultivars of eastern Spain, Italy and the USA. Selections from northern Spain may be directly useful as new cultivars or alternatively as parents in breeding programmes. The collection and preservation of this genetic diversity is important. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Campa A.,Area de Cultivos Hortofruticolas y Forestales | Trabanco N.,Area de Cultivos Hortofruticolas y Forestales | Perez-Vega E.,Area de Cultivos Hortofruticolas y Forestales | Rovira M.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Ferreira J.J.,Area de Cultivos Hortofruticolas y Forestales
Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

The genetic relationships between 40 wild hazelnuts collected in northern Spain and cultivated hazelnuts, including 62 local selections and 14 reference cultivars, were investigated using 13 microsatellite loci. Microsatellite analysis revealed considerable diversity; 91 different alleles were identified with a mean of 7 per locus, and polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.43 to 0.83 with a mean of 0.69. The plot obtained from principal coordinate analysis, the unrooted neighbour-joining tree constructed, and the population structure analysis revealed a high level of differentiation between the locally cultivated forms and the remaining materials. Introgressions within these groups were detected in the three analyses. The results indicate that hazelnuts in northern Spain contain (i) a group of accessions clearly differentiated within the Spanish-Italian gene pool, (ii) a group with intermediate forms probably derived from hybridization and (iii) accessions probably derived through exchange with other geographical areas, especially north-eastern Spain. The presence of these different groups within the local cultivated hazelnut germplasm has consequences for its preservation and use. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Vargas F.J.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Miarnau X.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The disease called "fusicoccum canker" or "fusicoccum", caused by the fungus Phomopsis amygdali Del. (synonym Fusicoccum amygdali Del.), is an important pathogen in almond-growing areas of Spain and other Mediterranean countries. The fungus is propagated mainly by water, so orchards located near the ocean, rivers, or dams, with high relative humidity, are particularly prone to this disease. In almond plots in Mas de Bover, located near the seashore, "fusicoccum canker" is a common and serious problem. In 2008, which had heavy rainfall during May and June (265.6 mm), very favorable conditions for disease development occurred, but cultivars and selections included in IRTA's almond germplasm collection were affected in very different ways. An assessment was carried out of disease incidence, classifying 70 cultivars from Australia, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Ukraine, and the U.S.A. and 36 selections from France, Greece, Iran, Israel, Italy, and Spain on their sensitivity or tolerance to this fungus. All cultivars and selections were placed in five classes according to their infection degrees: very tolerant (11 cultivars and 8 selections), tolerant (16 cultivars and 7 selections), medium (11 cultivars and 8 selections), susceptible (15 cultivars and 4 selections), and very susceptible (17 cultivars and 9 selections).

Hermoso J.F.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Romero A.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Tous J.,EMP Agricola
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

In the second half of the 1990s most olive regions in Spain raised the study for the adaptation of some olive cultivars to the various producing areas through a national network of trials. Specifically in Catalonia, three olive oil cultivar trials were established. In this paper are presented the results obtained in a trial, which was set in 1998 in Mora d'Ebre, south-west of the province of Tarragona, which included 12 cultivars. The trees were planted at a frame of 7x7 m (204 olive trees/ha). The main agronomic observations were carried out during an eleven year period (3rd to the 13th year of planting) and the fruit characteristics for a nine-years period (2003-2011). Outstanding cultivars are 'Picual' (37.4 kg/tree), 'Picudo' (36.7 kg/tree), 'Empeltre' (35.1 kg/tree) and 'Arbequina' (33.8 kg/tree). As far as their accumulated yield at the 13th year of planting, there exist significant differences: 'Picual' (183 kg/tree) is the most producing cultivar, followed by 'Arbequina' (171 kg/tree) and 'Picudo' (165 kg/tree) and finally 'Empeltre' and 'Frantoio' (about 150 kg/tree). The results of this trial show differences in the adaptation of some cultivars to the inland zone of Tarragona, where 'Picual', 'Arbequina', 'Empeltre' and 'Frantoio' have agronomically overpassed the other cultivars. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Romero A.,IRTA. Mas de Bover | Hermoso J.F.,IRTA. Mas de Bover | Tous J.,EMP Agricola
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

An olive rootstock selection program has been established in order to identify genotypes appropriate to control the vigour of 'Arbequina-IRTA-i•18' clone (scion) by grafting. This study is a coordinated program with IFAPA-Cordova, funded by INIA-RTA-2010-00013-C02-C2 research project. Additional rootstock characteristics considered are tolerance to specific soil diseases and performance under different soil conditions. The trial was planted, with drip irrigation, in Constantí (Tarragona, Spain) in 2001 and is complementary to a previous one planted in 2000 in the same site. Experimental design was a randomized complete block with 18 rootstocks and one control own-grafted and five replicates (one tree per rootstock and block). After 10 years of study, results show significant differences for tree vigour between rootstocks. In fact, higher vigour (40% more than i•18 in average) was observed for 'Empeltre' and 'Blanqueta', while 'Verdal de Manresa', 'Nana' and 'Redonda Mora de Toledo' scored the lower vigour (25% lower than i•18). Yield is higher for most vigorous rootstocks, but differences are still not significant related to own-grafted i•18. Fruit characteristics and oil composition are also discussed as affected by rootstocks. © 2014, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Prenafeta-Boldu F.X.,GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA UPC | Fernandez B.,GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA UPC | Vinas M.,GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA UPC | Lizardo R.,IRTA Mas de Bover | And 4 more authors.
Animal | Year: 2016

A 26-day trial with 18 Pietrain×(Landrace×Duroc) pigs was conducted to investigate the effect of two dose levels of a specifically selected Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) product, on the emission of environmentally harmful gasses (methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) from manure. Pigs were assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their sex and initial BW. Each treatment contained three replications with two pigs per pen. The test treatments included a Bacillus spp. DFM containing 3×108 colony-forming unit/g, added at a low (250 mg/kg) and high (500 mg/kg) dose to an antibiotic free high fibre-based diet, and a non-supplemented control diet. Manure from pigs fed with the supplemented diets emitted lower amounts of atmospheric contaminants. The most significant reduction was observed with low DFM supplementation, in which methane and ammonia volatilization decreased (P<0.05) by >40% and 50%, respectively, on fresh weight basis in relation to the control. Microbiome analysis of manure by high through put sequencing techniques on eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes highlighted the complex interactions between indigenous gut microflora and inoculated Bacillus spp. The tested Bacillus DFM could be considered as a best available technique in reducing the environmental impacts of growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets. © The Animal Consortium 2016

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