Soleiman N.H.,University of Seville |
Solis I.,University of Seville |
Soliman M.H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Sillero J.C.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo |
And 6 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2016
Leaf rust is a foliar disease caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina that may severely reduce durum wheat yield. Resistance to this pathogen is common in modern durum germplasm but is frequently based on Lr72 and Lr14a. After accounts of races with virulence to Lr14a gene in France in 2000, the present study reports the detection in 2013 for the first time of a new race with virulence to Lr14a and Lr72. The aim of this work was to characterize the virulence pattern of four Spanish isolates with virulence to Lr14a, and to discuss the consequences of this presence. Rusted leaves from cultivars ‘Don Jaime’ (Lr14a) and ‘Gallareta’ (Lr72) were collected in 2013 in the field at two Spanish sites, one in the south (near Cadiz) and another in the north (near Girona). Spores from single pustule for each cultivar and site were multiplied on susceptible cultivar ‘Don Rafael’. Then, the four isolates were inoculated on a set of 19 isogenic lines Thatcher to characterize their virulence spectrum. All isolates presented the same virulence pattern. They were virulent on both Lr14a and Lr72 and the race was named DBB/BS. This race was very similar to those reported in 2009-11, but with added virulence to Lr14a. The resistance based on Lr14a has therefore been overcome in Spain, by a new race that has likely emerged via stepwise mutation from the local predominating races. This information is important to guide breeders in their breeding programmes and gene deployment strategies. © 2016 INIA.
Laurens F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research |
Aranzana M.J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Arus P.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology |
Bassi D.,University of Milan |
And 14 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012
The European fruit industry is facing economic challenges imposed by increasingly fierce international competition and decreasing fruit consumption, societal demand for a more sustainable production, and biological problems caused by climate changes. Releasing new cultivars that meet these challenges is a major goal of all European breeding programmes. However, addressing them has been slow due to the nature of fruit tree breeding: long term, low efficiency and high cost. For the past 15 years, efficient networks of fruit geneticists and genomicists have progressively been built thanks in particular to EU-funded projects. Europe has thus become a leader in research on fruit genetics aimed at enhancing fruit quality traits as well as resistance to biotic stresses. European teams working on fruit genetics have developed up-to-date tools and skills covering most of the "omics" fields as well as statistics and software development. Although fruit breeding is very active in Europe, very few breeding programmes are really using the output of the fruit genetics/genomics research. A few bottlenecks can explain this situation. To solve that, a new European initiative has been set up by the FruitBreedomic. This large collaborative project, has the strategic goal of improving the efficiency of current fruit breeding programmes by bridging the existing gap between molecular genetics research and application in breeding.
Bonany J.,IRTA Mas Badia |
Carbo J.,IRTA Mas Badia |
Echeverria G.,Postharvest Unit XaRTA |
Iglesias I.,Postharvest Unit XaRTA |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment | Year: 2014
A protocol for a simultaneous consumer test on peach fruits produced in different countries was set up, and tests were carried out in France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain. New and commercial standard cultivars of peaches and nectarines, employing variable acid or sub-acid taste, yellow or white flesh, and including clingstone and flat peaches, were subjected to the hedonic judgment of more than 500 consumers. Cultivar evaluation and the effect of the consumer's gender and age on hedonic judgment varied, as expected, with country. However, the most appreciated cultivars had consistent results in all tests. This study makes it possible to estimate the weight of different factors in determining hedonic judgment with type (nectarine or peach) and taste (sub-acid or acid) being the main drivers for consumer preferences. Strong similarities were recorded among Italian, German and Spanish consumers, expressing the major importance of type. In France, type and taste had a similar weight, whereas in Poland a more complex scenario was revealed. The research showed the potential offered by international consumer tests in detecting either general or regional attitudes. Hedonic tests are the tool for orienting the peach market towards an increase of peach appreciation and, expectantly, consumption.
Bonany J.,IRTA Mas Badia |
Brugger C.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station ACW |
Buehler A.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station ACW |
Carbo J.,IRTA Mas Badia |
And 16 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2014
A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 - sweetness, fruitiness, flowery attributes, 2 - acidity, firmness, 3 - juiciness and crispness). Consumers were segmented in 6 clusters according to their preferences. The 6 clusters were grouped into two main mega clusters A (68% of consumers) and B (32% of consumers). Megacluster A (Clusters 1, 2, 5 and 6) was characterized by preferring sweet apples. Clusters 2 and 5 (41% of consumers) liked sweet apples independently of their acidity and firmness and moderate positive values on dimension of juiciness and crispness. Cluster 1 (21% of consumers) had an optimal point in positive values of the sweetness dimension, moderate negative value for acidity and firmness and moderate positive value for juiciness and crispness. Cluster 6 (6% of consumers) besides preferring sweet varieties disliked acid-firm varieties. As to regard to megacluster B (Clusters 3 and 4) (32% of consumers), they preferred varieties that were acidic-firm and juiciy and crisp with values in the mid range of the sweetness dimension. In spite of the difficulties in translating preference dimensions into standard practical values for fruit quality and the fact of being a punctual measurement of consumer behaviour, this preference map could be of practical use of different actors on the fruit value chain like marketers and breeders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Domingo-Olive F.,IRTA Mas Badia |
Bosch-Serra A.D.,University of Lleida |
Yague M.R.,University of Lleida |
Poch R.M.,University of Lleida |
Boixadera J.,University of Lleida
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2016
Organic fertilizers (manures and slurries) applied repeatedly over many cropping seasons favourably influence nutrient recycling, maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM), and improve soil quality parameters such as soil aggregation and porosity. These aspects are particularly relevant in Mediterranean environments characterized by low SOM. This study was set up in a subhumid Mediterranean area where two different trials, devoted to winter cereals, were fertilized with dairy cattle manure (DCM) or pig slurry (PS) for a period of 12 years. One objective of this research was to evaluate the impacts of these fertilization practices on aggregate stability and SOM fractions, when compared with a mineral N fertilizer and a control (no-N) treatment. Porosity and pore shape were also studied in PS plots. The use of DCM significantly increased water stable aggregates by up to 16.4–18.0 %. Slurry addition did not affect aggregation but it increased the area occupied by pores >65 µm. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and light organic fraction (0.05–0.2 mm) increased with DCM incorporation but in PS treatments the SOC increment was non-significant. Data from DCM and PS together showed a positive and significant linear relationship between SOC (p < 0.05, R2 = 0.60), SOC light fraction (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.75) and SOC light fraction at 0.05–0.2 mm size (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.83), with water-stable aggregate. The use of animal residues (DCM or PS), applied according to an N criterion, increased available phosphorus and potassium soil content while improving yields. The enrichment of soil nutrients with DCM and PS use requires further research in order to avoid potential environmental impacts. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Perramon B.,La Garrotxa Volcanic Zone Natural Park |
Perramon B.,University of Lleida |
Bosch-Serra A.D.,University of Lleida |
Domingo F.,IRTA Mas Badia |
Boixadera J.,University of Lleida
European Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016
The efficient use by crops of nitrogen from manures is an agronomic and environmental issue, mainly in double-annual forage cropping systems linked to livestock production. A six-year trial was conducted for a biennial rotation of four forage crops: oat-sorghum (first year) and ryegrass-maize (second year) in a humid Mediterranean area. Ten fertilization treatments were introduced: a control (without N); two minerals equivalent to 250 kg N ha-1 year-1 applied at sowing or as sidedressing; dairy cattle manure at a rate of 170, 250 and 500 kg N ha-1 year-1 and four treatments where the two lowest manure rates were supplemented with 80 or 160 kg mineral N ha-1 year-1. They were distributed according to a randomized block design with three blocks. The highest N mineral soil content was found in the summer of the third rotation, in plots where no manure was applied. The yearly incorporation of manure reduced, in successive cropping seasons, the amount of additional mineral N needed as sidedressing to achieve the highest yields. Besides, in the last two years, there was no need for mineral N application for the manure rate of 250 kg N ha-1 year-1. This amount always covered the oat-sorghum N uptake. In the ryegrass-maize sequence uptakes were as high as 336 kg N ha-1 year-1. In the medium term, the intermediate manure rate (250 kg N ha-1 year-1) optimizes nutrient recycling within the farming system, and it should be considered in the analysis of thresholds for N of organic origin to be applied to systems with high N demand. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Escudero-Colomar L.-A.,IRTA Mas Badia |
Choray A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
International Journal of Acarology | Year: 2012
High populations of Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman & McGregor, 1956) were recorded for the first time in northeast Spain on cultivated plants belonging to two species, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and apple tree (Malus x domestica Borkh.), and on the weeds Amaranthus retroflexus L. and Parietaria officinalis L. It is not known how this species was introduced onto these plants. The species has been reported as spontaneously occurring in South, Central and North America, New Zealand, Australia and Africa, but never until now in Europe. © 2012 Taylor & Francis.
Arbat G.,University of Girona |
Rosello A.,IRTA Mas Badia. |
Olive F.D.,IRTA Mas Badia. |
Puig-Bargues J.,University of Girona |
And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2013
Intensive swine production in Catalonia (NE Spain) has great economic importance. Applying the resulting pig slurry as fertilizer is technically sound, but there is a risk of nitrate leaching. It is therefore important to determine the amount of pig slurry that will achieve an acceptable crop yield yet prevent environmental risks. In an experiment carried out in 2009 irrigation water and grain yield in a silt loam soil were compared for furrow and drip irrigation with two emitter spacings (30 and 50 cm). The results showed that using drip irrigation improved water use efficiency (WUE) and that WUE and corn yield were not significantly different for emitters spaced at 30 and 50 cm. Based on these results, in 2010 the irrigation was carried out using emitters spaced 50 cm apart. Two different pre-planting fertilization treatments (0 and 120 kg N/ha from pig slurry) were applied. In addition, each of those two treatments was subjected to ten different side-dress fertilization treatments, with the rate of nitrogen applied through fertigation ranging from 0 to 300 kg N/ha. Soil water distribution simulated with HYDRUS-2D showed good agreement with observed values. Most of the nitrate leaching was produced after physiological maturity associated with high precipitations that produced drainage and NO3--N leaching, especially in the treatments that received excessive amounts of nitrogen. With relatively low initial soil nitrate content, side-dress application rates of 40-75 kg N/ha combined with pig slurry applied at pre-planting produced nearly maximum grain yield with minimum N leaching and did not contravene the existing EU directives on nitrate pollution. On the other hand, nitrogen applications over 150 kg N/ha during the growing season did not increase yield but did significantly increase the concentration of nitrate in the leached solution. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.