IRTA Lleida

Lleida, Spain

IRTA Lleida

Lleida, Spain

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Bonany J.,IRTA Mas Badia | Brugger C.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station ACW | Buehler A.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station ACW | Carbo J.,IRTA Mas Badia | And 16 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2014

A consumer test carried out in 7 different European countries compared 3 standard apple varieties to 8 new ones. A total of 4290 consumers took part in the test. Data from this test was used to develop a preference map for apple. The preference map was constructed with 3 main dimensions (1 - sweetness, fruitiness, flowery attributes, 2 - acidity, firmness, 3 - juiciness and crispness). Consumers were segmented in 6 clusters according to their preferences. The 6 clusters were grouped into two main mega clusters A (68% of consumers) and B (32% of consumers). Megacluster A (Clusters 1, 2, 5 and 6) was characterized by preferring sweet apples. Clusters 2 and 5 (41% of consumers) liked sweet apples independently of their acidity and firmness and moderate positive values on dimension of juiciness and crispness. Cluster 1 (21% of consumers) had an optimal point in positive values of the sweetness dimension, moderate negative value for acidity and firmness and moderate positive value for juiciness and crispness. Cluster 6 (6% of consumers) besides preferring sweet varieties disliked acid-firm varieties. As to regard to megacluster B (Clusters 3 and 4) (32% of consumers), they preferred varieties that were acidic-firm and juiciy and crisp with values in the mid range of the sweetness dimension. In spite of the difficulties in translating preference dimensions into standard practical values for fruit quality and the fact of being a punctual measurement of consumer behaviour, this preference map could be of practical use of different actors on the fruit value chain like marketers and breeders. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bonany J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Buehler A.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil Research Station ACW | Carbo J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Codarin S.,Center technique interprofessionnel des fruits et legumes | And 15 more authors.
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2013

During January and February 2007 a European consumer test of eight new apple varieties and three standard ones was carried out in different European countries. The most common apple varieties were compared to new ones, focusing on consumer acceptance and the potential for increasing apple consumption. We sought to test the hypothesis that the introduction of new improved varieties would help to increase fruit consumption. Data from a sensory test involving 4290 consumers in seven different countries were analysed for the effects of variety and test country, age, gender and apple consumption habit of the consumer on eating quality acceptance. The results obtained showed a strong interaction between country and variety, although a group of four varieties ('Gold Pink', 'CIVni', 'Cripps Pink' and 'Fuji') formed part of a group of the varieties that were most accepted in all of the countries except Germany. Significant interactions between variety and age and variety and gender were observed, but their magnitudes were not considered to be of any practical significance. No statistically significant interaction was found between variety and apple consumption habit on eating quality acceptance. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Casellas J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Ibanez-Escriche N.,IRTA Lleida
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012

The analysis of microarray gene expression data has experienced a remarkable growth in scientific research over the last few years and is helping to decipher the genetic background of several productive traits. Nevertheless, most analytical approaches have relied on the comparison of 2 (or a few) well-defined groups of biological conditions where the continuous covariates have no sense (e.g., healthy vs. cancerous cells). Continuous effects could be of special interest when analyzing gene expression in animal productionoriented studies (e.g., birth weight), although very few studies address this peculiarity in the animal science framework. Within this context, we have developed a recursive linear mixed model where not only are linear covariates accounted for during gene expression analyses but also hierarchized and the effects of their genetic, environmental, and residual components on differential gene expression inferred independently. This parameterization allows a step forward in the inference of differential gene expression linked to a given quantitative trait such as birth weight. The statistical performance of this recursive model was exemplified under simulation by accounting for different sample sizes (n), heritabilities for the quantitative trait (h2), and magnitudes of differential gene expression (λ). It is important to highlight that statistical power increased with n, h2, and λ, and the recursive model exceeded the standard linear mixed model with linear (nonrecursive) covariates in the majority of scenarios. This new parameterization would provide new insights about gene expression in the animal science framework, opening a new research scenario where within-covariate sources of differential gene expression could be individualized and estimated. The source code of the program accommodating these analytical developments and additional information about practical aspects on running the program are freely available by request to the corresponding author of this article. © 2012 American Society of Animal Science.


Ortiz A.,University of Lleida | Graell J.,University of Lleida | Lopez M.L.,University of Lleida | Echeverria G.,IRTA Lleida | Lara I.,University of Lleida
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Peach fruit is highly perishable, which drastically restricts storage potential and marketing possibilities. Although aroma is a very important attribute for sensory quality of peach, post-harvest procedures, aimed at extending commercial availability of fruit, have focused preferentially on other quality aspects. In this work, we were interested in assessing the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and controlled atmosphere storage on the post-storage production of volatile esters, important aroma-contributing compounds, by fruit of the late season cultivar 'Tardibelle'. Results indicate that the supply of alcohol and acyl-CoA precursors was altered as a consequence of treatments considered, leading to significant changes in the emission of some volatile esters, particularly of the straight-chain type. Some enzyme activities involved in the production of volatile esters from fatty acids were partially inhibited in 1-MCP-treated fruit, suggesting that they are under ethylene regulation, although tissue-specific differences were also observed. Lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide lyase activities were particularly relevant for these modifications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Ortiz A.,University of Lleida | Echeverria G.,IRTA Lleida | Graell J.,University of Lleida | Lara I.,University of Lleida
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2010

Calcium treatment of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) fruit is a widely used practice aimed mainly at avoiding the development of bitter pit. However, very few studies have reported the effects of such treatments on the production of flavour-related volatile compounds, despite the relevance of aroma and taste for overall quality. In this study, commercially mature 'Golden Reinders' apples were dipped in 2% (w/v) calcium chloride prior to storage at 1°C and 92% RH under either air, standard controlled atmosphere (SCA; 3kPa O2:2kPa CO2) or ultra-low oxygen atmosphere (ULO; 1kPa O2:2kPa CO2) for 19 or 31 weeks, and subsequent removal to 20°C for 7d, after which the emission of aroma-related volatile compounds and a number of maturity and standard quality parameters were assessed. Calcium treatment notably enhanced the production of aroma volatile compounds after mid-term storage under air and, to a lesser extent, under SCA. Retention of titratable acidity (TA) was also improved in air-stored fruit in response to calcium treatment, while no effects on firmness were observed. Although ULO-stored samples showed the highest firmness and TA values under storage, aroma volatile production was severely depleted, and calcium treatment could not overcome this inhibition. It is therefore suggested that calcium applications allow improving aroma quality while preserving adequate levels of key standard quality parameters after mid-term storage of 'Golden Reinders' fruit, and are thus a simple and economical alternative to CA storage of this apple cultivar. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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