IRTA Fruitcentre

Lleida, Spain

IRTA Fruitcentre

Lleida, Spain
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Torres E.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Recasens I.,University of Lleida | Avila G.,IRTA Mas Badia Field Station | Lordan J.,IRTA Fruitcentre | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Fruit mineral analysis at harvest is recommended as a predictive method to assess the risk of bitter pit (BP) in apple orchards, although it only provides valuable information if conducted just before harvest. To gain more time to implement corrective action, some studies proposed early season analysis of fruitlets. However, neither results were reported for analysis accuracy, nor the best time to perform it. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of early season fruitlet analyses at different stages — 40, 60 and 80 days after full bloom (DAFB) — to predict BP in ‘Golden Smoothee’ apples. Multivariate models for each early stage were developed and compared to a linear model using the calcium (Ca) content alone. Both the multivariate analyses and linear correlations suggested 60 DAFB as the best time to perform early mineral analysis. The Ca concentration in the fruit contributed greatly to BP incidence either at an early stage or at harvest. The boron concentration showed a negative correlation with Ca concentration and a positive correlation with BP incidence. The other tested nutrients (magnesium, nitrogen, potassium) showed little effect on the prediction models and/or an irregular pattern. The accuracy of the multivariate model (R2 = 0.580) was not significantly better than the analysis of Ca alone (R2 = 0.504) when the occurrence of BP was high. Finally, a Ca threshold at 60 DAFB equal to or greater than 11.0 mg 100 g−1 fresh weight (f. w.) indicated a low risk of BP (<10% of incidence). This early season threshold value was a better indicator of the BP risk than the traditional threshold value at harvest (5–6 mg Ca 100 g−1 f. w.). © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Torres E.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Recasens I.,University of Lleida | Lordan J.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Lordan J.,Cornell University | Alegre S.,IRTA Fruitcentre
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2017

Calcium (Ca) sprays and Ca applications to soil throughout the growing season or Ca solution dips at post-harvest are widespread practices to supply Ca and decrease bitter pit in apples. However, published results conflict, and there is no information about the effectiveness of combining all these treatments. In the present study, the following treatments were assessed during four growing seasons: early-season (April) Ca soil applications applied 4 times, mid-season (May) CaCl2 sprays applied 7 or 13 times, late-season (June) CaCl2 sprays applied 7 times, and the combination of late-season sprays and soil applications. In addition, post-harvest dips were evaluated in the latter two growing seasons. Notably high bitter pit incidences were monitored for the first and fourth year of study (>20%), while the second and third year were almost without incidence. Post-harvest dips mitigated bitter pit incidence to a greater extent than pre-harvest treatments, and the sprays mitigated bitter pit to a greater extent than Ca soil applications. The combination of sprays and soil applications did not improve the results relative to Ca sprays alone. No detectable advantage for starting spray programmes earlier than June was observed. Our results showed a trend towards reduced bitter pit with an increasing number of CaCl2 sprays, but this was not clearly an effect of maximizing fruit Ca. Finally, applying 13 CaCl2 sprays in combination with a Ca solution dip at post-harvest appeared to be the most effective practice for minimizing the risk of bitter pit development. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Fritsch C.,Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging | Staebler A.,Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging | Happel A.,Bioprocess Pilot Facility B.V. BPF | Marquez M.A.C.,Indulleida S.A. | And 12 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2017

The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of potato, tomato, cereals and olive arise in significant amounts in European countries and are consequently of high relevance. Due to their composition with various beneficial ingredients, the waste products can be valorized by different techniques leading to economic and environmental advantages. This paper focuses on the waste generation during industrial processing of potato, tomato, cereals and olives within the European Union and reviews state-of-the-art technologies for their valorization. Furthermore, current applications, future perspectives and challenges are discussed. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Gine-Bordonaba J.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Bonany J.,IRTA Mas Badia | Echeverria G.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Larrigaudiere C.,IRTA Fruitcentre
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2017

The slow-melting flesh (SMF) trait in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] defines a slower process of postharvest fruit-softening than the prevalent melting flesh (MF) types. This gives a longer shelf life and a delayed harvest-time resulting in better fruit quality. Unlike other known fruit texture traits, SMF is difficult to measure and has a complex inheritance. We examined this character over 2 years in the offspring of two crosses, both with “Big Top,” an SMF nectarine, as the female parent, and with a melting flesh (MF) nectarine as the male parent (“Armking” and “Nectaross”). Following harvest, a texturometer was used to provide a textural profile analysis, and fruit firmness evolution was measured with a penetrometer over a period of 5 days’ storage at 20 °C. Linkage maps were constructed with a high-density SNP chip, and a phenotype-genotype analysis allowed the detection of three independent genomic regions where most QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were located. Two of these, on linkage groups 4 and 5, explained the variability for two characters—maturity date and firmness loss—that is, the QTL on linkage group 4 found in the MF parents and that on linkage group 5 in Big Top. A third region on linkage group 6, which identified a QTL for maturity date only in Armking, has no apparent association to the softening process. The relationship between maturity date and fruit-firmness loss and a hypothesis on the inheritance of the SMF character are discussed. © 2017, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Bianchi T.,Food Technology Center | Bianchi T.,Wageningen University | Weesepoel Y.,Wageningen University | Koot A.,Wageningen University | And 6 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2017

The aim of this study was to investigate the aroma and sensory profiles of various types of peaches (Prunus persica L. Batsch.). Forty-three commercial cultivars comprising peaches, flat peaches, nectarines, and canning peaches (pavías) were grown over two consecutive harvest years. Fruits were assessed for chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Chemical aroma profile was obtained by proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and spectral masses were tentatively identified with PTR-Time of Flight-MS (PTR-Tof-MS). Sensory analysis was performed at commercial maturity considering seven aroma/flavor attributes. The four types of peaches showed both distinct chemical aroma and sensory profiles. Flat peaches and canning peaches showed most distinct patterns according to discriminant analysis. The sensory data were related to the volatile compounds by partial least square regression. γ-Hexalactone, γ-octalactone, hotrienol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate correlated positively, and benzeneacetaldehyde, trimethylbenzene and acetaldehyde negatively to the intensities of aroma and ripe fruit sensory scores. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Diaz A.,University of Zaragoza | Diaz A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Martin-Hernandez A.M.,Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics UAB UB | Dolcet-Sanjuan R.,IRTA Fruitcentre | And 5 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2017

Key message: Loci on LGIV, VI, and VIII of melon genome are involved in the control of fruit domestication-related traits and they are candidate to have played a role in the domestication of the crop.Abstract: The fruit of wild melons is very small (20–50 g) without edible pulp, contrasting with the large size and high pulp content of cultivated melon fruits. An analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling fruit morphology domestication-related traits was carried out using an in vitro maintained F2 population from the cross between the Indian wild melon “Trigonus” and the western elite cultivar ‘Piel de Sapo’. Twenty-seven QTL were identified in at least two out of the three field trials. Six of them were also being detected in BC1 and BC3 populations derived from the same cross. Ten of them were related to fruit morphological traits, 12 to fruit size characters, and 5 to pulp content. The Trigonus alleles decreased the value of the characters, except for the QTL at andromonoecious gene at linkage group (LG) II, and the QTL for pulp content at LGV. QTL genotypes accounted for a considerable degree of the total phenotypic variation, reaching up to 46%. Around 66% of the QTL showed additive gene action, 19% exhibited dominance, and 25% consisted of overdominance. The regions on LGIV, VI, and VIII included the QTL with more consistent and strong effects on domestication-related traits. QTLs on those regions were validated in BC2S1, BC2S2, and BC3 families, with “Trigonus” allele decreasing the fruit morphological traits in all cases. The validated QTL could represent loci involved in melon domestication, although further experiments as genomic variation studies across wild and cultivated genotypes would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis. © 2017 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Lordan J.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Alegre S.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Gatius F.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Sarasua M.J.,IRTA Fruitcentre | Alins G.,IRTA Fruitcentre
Bulletin of Entomological Research | Year: 2015

A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from May to August. Winter temperatures did not kill the canopy colonies, and both canopy and root colonies are the source of reinfestations in Mediterranean areas. Thus, control measures should simultaneously address roots and canopy. European earwigs Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus) were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) from summer to fall. Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed. © Cambridge University Press 2014.


PubMed | IRTA Fruitcentre
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of entomological research | Year: 2015

A multilateral approach that includes both biotic and climatic data was developed to detect the main variables that affect the ecology and population dynamics of woolly apple aphid Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann). Crawlers migrated up and down the trunk mainly from spring to autumn and horizontal migration through the canopy was observed from May to August. Winter temperatures did not kill the canopy colonies, and both canopy and root colonies are the source of reinfestations in Mediterranean areas. Thus, control measures should simultaneously address roots and canopy. European earwigs Forficula auricularia (Linnaeus) were found to reduce the survival of overwintering canopy colonies up to June, and this can allow their later control by the parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) from summer to fall. Preliminary models to predict canopy infestations were developed.

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