Monells, Spain
Monells, Spain

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Hurtado A.,University of Murcia | Picouet P.,IRTA Food Technology Program | Jofre A.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Guardia M.D.,IRTA Food Technology Program | And 2 more authors.
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2015

Three high pressure processing (HPP) treatments (350 and 450 MPa for 5 min and 600 MPa for 3 min) at cold temperature (10 °C) were assessed as an alternative to thermal pasteurization (85 °C for 7 min) to obtain multi-fruit smoothies with “fresh-like” properties destined for retailing lines. The effects of the treatments on various sensory, enzymatic, physical-chemical and nutritional properties were determined 48 h post-processing, and microbial quality (total viable and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, moulds and yeasts) was checked after 30 days of refrigerated storage. Compared with HPP, the thermal treatment only provided benefits with respect to the inactivation of oxidase and pectic enzymes but had clear disadvantages concerning the development of a cooked-fruit flavour and the loss of vitamin C. The application of 350 MPa did not alter fruit properties and ensured the microbiological quality of smoothies, while using higher pressures involved a higher risk of flavour alteration without providing other benefits. Both HPP treatments retained vitamin C, total phenols and flavonoids but also resulted in a sucrose hydrolysis. However, the antioxidant capacity and the values of lightness, turbidity, transmittance and viscosity indicated that the pressurized smoothies had a higher tendency for clarification and oxidation than the thermally pasteurized smoothies. Thus, the resistance of spoiling enzymes to high pressure is probably the main handicap when pressurizing fruit smoothies, since these enzymes remained active in the HPP-treated smoothies and the potential sensory and nutritional benefits of using HPP could be lost during storage. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Rubio R.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Aymerich T.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Bover-Cid S.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Guardia M.D.,Food Technology Program | And 2 more authors.
LWT - Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Probiotic food products are a fast growing area. Although probiotic strains are currently used in dairy products, their commercial application in fermented meat products is not yet common. The aim of this study was to assess the competitiveness of two probiotic Lactobacillus strains (Lactobacillus plantarum 299V and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) during the manufacture of Spanish fermented sausages and their effect on the hygienic and sensory qualities of the final products. The inoculated strains were successfully monitored by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. Both strains prevented the growth of Enterobacteriaceae throughout the entire ripening process. L.rhamnosus GG and L.plantarum 299V at high inoculum (ca. 107CFU/g) produced a sharp decrease of pH values and low growth of Gram-positive Catalase-positive Cocci (GCC+), leading to a negative effect on the sensory attributes evaluated. Nevertheless, L.plantarum 299V inoculated at 105CFU/g achieved and maintained high counts until the end of ripening and storage (ca.108CFU/g), co-dominating (60%) with the endogenous microbiota, producing functional sausages with a satisfactory overall sensory quality. No major differences in physico-chemical parameters or sensory attributes were recorded when compared to spontaneously fermented sausages, thus adding further value to this type of meat product as a probiotic vehicle. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Murcia, IRTA Food Safety Program and IRTA Food Technology Program
Type: | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Non-thermal pasteurization by High Pressure Processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing Thermal Processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. However, most of the research on HPP-fruit products only partially address fruit-pressure interaction, which limits their practical interest. The objective was to assess the use of a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit based smoothies in a wide (microbial, enzymatic, oxidative and physical stability).HPP (350 MPa/10 C/5min) was slightly less effective than TP (85C/7min) in inactivating microbes (mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and moulds) in the smoothies kept at 4C for up to 28 days. The main limitation of using HPP was its low efficacy in inactivating the oxidative (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase) and hydrolytic (pectin methyl esterase) enzymes. Data on antioxidant status, colour parameters, browning index, transmittance, turbidity and viscosity confirmed that the HPP-smoothies have a greater tendency towards oxidation and clarification, which might lead to undesirable sensory and nutritional changes (see part B).The microbial quality of smoothies was adequately controlled by mild HPP treatment without affecting their physical-chemical characteristics; however, oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes are highly pressure-resistant, which suggests that additional strategies should be used to stabilize smoothies.


PubMed | University of Murcia, IRTA Food Safety Program and IRTA Food Technology Program
Type: | Journal: Journal of the science of food and agriculture | Year: 2016

Non-thermal pasteurization by High Pressure Processing (HPP) is increasingly replacing Thermal Processing (TP) to maintain the properties of fresh fruit products. The resulting products need to be validated from a sensory and nutritional standpoint. The objective was to assess a mild HPP treatment to stabilize red fruit based smoothies in a wide (sensory quality and major nutrients) study.HPP (350 MPa/10 C/5min) provided fresh-like smoothies, free of cooked-fruit flavours, for at least 14 days at 4C, although their sensory stability was low compared with the TP-smoothies (85C/7min). In HPP-smoothies, the loss of fresh fruit flavour and reduced sliminess were the clearest signs of sensory deterioration during storage. Furthermore, HPP permitted the higher initial retention of vitamin C, although this vitamin and, to a lesser extent, total phenols, had a higher degradation rate during storage. The content of sugar present was not affected by either processing treatment.Mild HPP treatment did not alter the sensory and nutritional properties of smoothies. The sensory and nutritional losses during storage were less than might be expected, probably due to the high antioxidant content and the natural turbidity provided by red fruits.


Ribas-Agusti A.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Seda M.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Sarraga C.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Montero J.I.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems | Year: 2016

Composting is an appealing way to reutilize the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). Beyond the obvious advantage of reducing urban waste, the use of MSW compost in agriculture entails other potential benefits, such as reducing the amount of mineral fertilizer applied to the field and providing a potentially higher quality alternative. However, some concerns may arise from its use, such as crop yield and quality alterations. This work studied the effect of fertilizing with compost obtained from the organic fraction of MSW, on crop yield, crop quality and phenolic content of tomato fruit. Experiments were conducted in the Barcelona area, using Solanum lycopersicum L., var. ‘Penjar’, a popular regional tomato. Compared with the use of mineral fertilizer (M), fertilization with MSW compost alone (C) or combined with mineral fertilizer (C + M) had no significant effect on tomato fruit quality characterized by weight, diameter or Brix, nor was there a significant effect on total phenolic content. In contrast, the C treatment altered the phenolic profile by enhancing a kaempferol derivative, and caused a 43 and 48% yield reduction compared with the C + M and M treatments, respectively. Overall, composted MSW + mineral fertilizer appeared to be the best strategy for the reutilization of MSW in tomato culture, as it did not compromise crop yield or fruit quality. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016


Rubio R.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Martin B.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Aymerich T.,IRTA Food Safety Program | Garriga M.,IRTA Food Safety Program
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21. days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption L rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8 log. CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch.L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 108CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35days of storage at 4°C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600MPa for 5min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels <1logCFU/g. After 35days of storage at 4°C the pathogen was not detected.Thus, the strain L. rhamnosus CTC1679 is a suitable starter culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels <1log CFU/g. After 35 days of storage at 4 C the pathogen was not detected. Thus, the strain L. rhamnosus CTC1679 is a suitable starter culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages.

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