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Iglesias I.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Echeverria G.,IRTA Area de Postcollita | Lopez M.L.,Avda. Rovira Roure
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The effect of strain on fruit color development and anthocyanin content, fruit quality, volatile compound emissions and consumer acceptability was evaluated on seven 'Fuji' apple strains (Malus domestica Borkh.) at the IRTA (Spain) over a period starting three weeks commercial harvest in 2008 and ending one week after harvest. Based on fruit color, measured with a portable tristimulus colorimeter, and anthocyanin content, the most colored strain was 'Zhen Fuji Aztec' (blushed), followed by 'Fuji 6629' (also blushed), 'Fuji Kiku 8' and 'Rubin Fuji' (both striped). 'Fuji Chofu 2' (blushed) and 'Fuji Suprema' (barely striped) were the least colored strains, although fruit color started earlier in the last one. 'Ogura' (barely striped) provided intermediate values. The most important increase in anthocyanin content and decrease in hue values was recorded from one week before commercial harvest until harvest, in all strains except 'Fuji Suprema'. Highly colored strains developed a red color on both sides of the fruit with greater average values for strains with greater colored surfaces than for less colored strains. A medium relationship between hue angle, L* and a*/b* ratio and anthocyanin content was established.Fruit quality parameters for the different harvest dates as fruit firmness, soluble solid content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and starch index were similar for the different cultivars and date. Fruit firmness is well maintained across different dates even with high values of starch index. Differences in fruit color, intensity and type, were not related to differences in the fruit quality parameters of the different strains. Ripening time was therefore not related to the intensity or type of fruit color.There are some quantitatively and qualitatively differences among the volatile profiles of all the 'Fuji' strains. In quantitative terms, the 'Fuji' strain that emitted the lowest total concentration was 'Fuji Aztec'. There were no statistical differences among the total volatile compound concentrations of 'Fuji Kiku 8', 'Rubin Fuji', 'Fuji 6629' and 'Fuji Chofu 2', which obtained the highest values. The main volatile compound emitted for all of the analyzed strains was the 2-methylbutyl acetate. In general, apples of the most colored strains emitted less volatile compound compared to the least colored. Concerning to consumer acceptability, 'Fuji Aztec' strain got the lowest mean score, but there were no differences among the rest of 'Fuji' strains. A full-data principal component analysis was run. This analysis showed a high correlation between consumer acceptability and some of the volatile compounds emitted, in addition to fruit that exhibit bigger hue angles on the exposed side (lower red color). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Vargas F.J.,IRTA Mas de Bover | Miarnau X.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The disease called "fusicoccum canker" or "fusicoccum", caused by the fungus Phomopsis amygdali Del. (synonym Fusicoccum amygdali Del.), is an important pathogen in almond-growing areas of Spain and other Mediterranean countries. The fungus is propagated mainly by water, so orchards located near the ocean, rivers, or dams, with high relative humidity, are particularly prone to this disease. In almond plots in Mas de Bover, located near the seashore, "fusicoccum canker" is a common and serious problem. In 2008, which had heavy rainfall during May and June (265.6 mm), very favorable conditions for disease development occurred, but cultivars and selections included in IRTA's almond germplasm collection were affected in very different ways. An assessment was carried out of disease incidence, classifying 70 cultivars from Australia, France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Ukraine, and the U.S.A. and 36 selections from France, Greece, Iran, Israel, Italy, and Spain on their sensitivity or tolerance to this fungus. All cultivars and selections were placed in five classes according to their infection degrees: very tolerant (11 cultivars and 8 selections), tolerant (16 cultivars and 7 selections), medium (11 cultivars and 8 selections), susceptible (15 cultivars and 4 selections), and very susceptible (17 cultivars and 9 selections). Source


Sugar D.,Oregon State University | Villardel P.,IRTA Estacio Experimental Agricola Mas Badia | Asin L.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Fruit russet incidence can be an important pear quality factor. Data on russet incidence on untreated 'Comice' and 'Bosc' pear fruit were collected for 13 and 10 years, respectively. Russet in 'Comice' was quantified as the percentage of fruit with >6% of the fruit surface covered in russet, and in 'Bosc' as the percentage of fruit with >97% russet. Russet incidence at harvest was correlated with records of various weather factors for the multi-year series. Beginning at each date from 21 days before full bloom until 50 days after full bloom, an 11-day moving window was calculated for each weather factor. Coefficients of correlation between weather factors and fruit russet at harvest were then plotted against dates relative to full bloom, and trends based on fifth-order polynomial equations were observed. High negative correlations with fruit russet were observed for temperature-related parameters (maximum and mean daily temperature, mean growing degree days base 10°C, intra-day temperature change). High positive correlations were observed with relative humidity (mean RH, accumulated hours with RH >80%). Peak correlation coefficient values for temperature and humidity factors typically occurred at 15-18 days after full bloom. Copper hydroxide applied to 'Bosc' pears at petal-fall enhanced russet and efficacy correlated negatively with temperature and positively with humidity. Source


Reig G.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Iglesias I.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Echeverria G.,IRTA Area de Postcollita
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The effect of flat peach and flat nectarine cultivars on agronomical performance, fruit quality and sensory attributes was evaluated at IRTA-Lleida (Spain) during several seasons. 'Sweet Cap®' and 'Mesembrinecov' were used as reference cultivars for peaches and nectarines, respectively. Blooming was, in general, similar for different cultivars and occurred between 'Big Top®' and 'O'Henry®' (reference cultivars). Blooming intensity was high or very high for most of the cultivars except 'Ordigancov'. Fruit set and hand thinning requirements were also high for all the cultivars except 'Oriolacov' and 'UFO-6® (Isfroplat-6Dcov)'. The harvest period ranged from the end of May ('UFO-1® (Isfroplat-1 Dcov)') to the middle of September ('FlatlatecakeDcov'). Early yields were recorded for all cultivars except 'Oriolacov', which exhibited delayed yielding. Of the mid-season cultivars, 'Sweet Cap' was the peach cultivar that provided the greatest yield and fruit size and 'Mesembrinecov' was the nectarine with the greatest colour. Fruit quality parameters were not affected by fruit type: peach or nectarine. Mean fruit diameter ranged from 55 mm ('UFO-1® (Isfroplat-1Dcov)') to 75 mm ('Oriolacov') depending on harvest time and cultivar. Lower fruit weight was recorded for the most precocious cultivars: 'UFO-1® (Isfroplat-1Dcov)' and 'UFO-2® (Isfroplat-2Dcov)', while 'Oriolacov' had the greatest weight. Fruit colour was affected by cultivar and harvest date. The best colour was recorded for cultivars harvested from mid-June to mid-August. Fruit firmness was lower in early harvested cultivars than in medium or late ones. Soluble solids content ranged from 10 °Brix ('UFO-2® (Isfroplat-2Dcov)') to 16 °Brix ('Nectacake®28 (ASF 04-71Dcov)'). Titratable acidity was medium to low for all cultivars except 'Donutnicecov', which had the greatest content. Values ranged from 1.5 ('UFO-6® (Isfroplat-6 Dcov)') to 10 g/L ('Donutnicecov'). Sensory attributes were assessed for 12 cultivars, using 'Big Top®' as the reference for sweet taste cultivars and 'Diamond Raycov' for acid taste cultivars. All the cultivars except 'Donutnicecov' exhibited a sweet taste. © ISHS 2012. Source


Asin L.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida | Vilardell P.,IRTA Estacio Experimental Agricola Mas Badia | Bonany J.,IRTA Estacio Experimental Agricola Mas Badia | Alegre S.,IRTA Estacio Experimental de Lleida
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Trials on 'Conference' and 'Blanquilla' orchards were carried out in 2005 and 2007 in the Lleida basin (north-east Spain). Several thinning treatments involving 6-BA and NAA were applied either alone or in mixtures and the results were compared with hand-thinning. In all years, the experimental design was a randomized block. Both bioregulators showed a thinning effect, but this was not statistically significant in all cases. An improvement in fruit thinning was detected when both bioregulators were applied together. In some cases, this effect was too great and resulted in a decrease of around 60% in the final fruit yield, with BA at 150 ppm + NAA at 40 ppm in 'Conference', while in 'Blanquilla', the decrease was of around 30%. There was a direct relationship between fruit weight and crop load and a tendency for fruit weight to increase with 6-BA in 'Blanquilla'. Source

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