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Constantí, Spain

Rovira M.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Tous J.,EMP Agricola | Hermoso J.F.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Romero A.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

During 9 years the performance of eleven cultivars coming from three different countries was evaluated in a comparative trial at IRTA-Mas de Bover, Constantí (Tarragona, northeastern Spain). The own rooted cultivars were: 'Clon La Masó', 'Negret N-9', 'Negret Primerenc' and 'Pauetet' (Spain); 'San Giovanni', 'Tonda di Giffoni', 'Tonda Italiana' and 'Tonda Romana' (Italy); 'Clark', 'Lewis' and 'Villamette' (USA). The trial was established in 2001; trees were spaced at 6×3.5 m and conducted in a single trunk, with drip irrigation. The statistical design was a randomized complete block with 11 replications and one tree per replication and treatment. Production, suckering, tree vigor and nut and kernel characteristics (weight, kernel size >12 mm, and defects) were evaluated. 'San Giovanni' (near 40 kg/tree), 'Tonda Italiana' (37 kg/tree), 'Pauetet' (35 kg/tree) and 'Clon la Masó' (34 kg/tree), excelled for their cumulative nut yield, whereas 'Negret Primerenc', 'Tonda Romana' and 'Villamette' were less productive. Referring to nut characteristics, kernel percentage of 'Clon La Masó' and 'Clark' cultivars, with values of 51.13 and 50.67%, respectively, were the highest, whereas 'Tonda Italiana' presented less kernel yield (38.25%). 'Tonda di Giffoni', 'Clark' and 'Tonda Romana' stood out for their big kernel size (>12 mm).

Sola-Oriol D.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | van Kempen T.,Provimi Research and Inovation Center | van Kempen T.,North Carolina State University | Torrallardona D.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Changes in the rate of passage of digesta may affect feed digestibility and glycaemia, but at the same time glycaemia may also regulate stomach emptying and as a consequence digesta passage rate. The correlations between the glycaemic index (GI) of 12 cereals, the ileal and total tract, dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibilities and the ileal digesta flow characteristics of pig feeds containing them were studied. GI for each cereal was calculated as the maximal glucose release rate per minute using an in vitro digestibility system. Pigs fitted with an ileal T-cannula were used to measure the DM and OM digestibilities (ileal and total tract) of the corresponding cereal-based diets, and their ileal digesta flow rate, lag time to initial flow of digesta (Tlag) and mean retention time (MRT). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) was used as indigestible marker. The Spearman's correlations between the GI, the parameters of digesta flow and the digestibility values were estimated. GI was significantly correlated with ileal digestibility of OM (r=0.58; P<0.05), ileal digesta flow rate (r=0.79; P<0.01), Tlag (r=-0.76; P<0.01) and MRT (r=-0.87; P<0.01). DM and OM ileal digestibility and the digesta flow parameters were also correlated (P<0.05). Positive significant correlations between cereal GI, feed digestibility and digesta flow rate have been found. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Rovira M.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Martin I.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Self and cross-pollination in two almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) orchards was observed during two consecutive years, 2006 and 2007. One orchard having the selfcompatible cultivar 'Francolí' as the main cultivar and 'Glorieta' and 'Masbovera' as pollinators, and the second, the self-compatible cultivar 'Guara', with 'Ferraduel' and 'Masbovera' as pollinators. One tree of 'Francolí' and one from 'Guara' were selected in each orchard. On each tree, two branches, one close to the pollinators and the other at the opposite side, were chosen. Bee hives were not placed in the orchards. Two hundred fruits were collected both years from each branch, and put to germinate. The male genitor of each seedling was determined by molecular markers (isozymes and SSRs). During the two years of the study, more almonds coming from self-pollination (77% from 'Francolí' and 67% from 'Guara' in 2006; 96% from 'Francolí' and 77% from 'Guara' in 2007) than from cross pollination were obtained. Differences were more evident in 2007, when the blooming period of the pollinators presented a lag respect blooming time of 'Francolí' and 'Guara', respectively. Nuts coming from cross pollination were detected in branches far away from pollinators, indicating that even without hives in the orchards; there are natural populations of bees during the flowering season.

Sola-Oriol D.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Torrallardona D.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Gasa J.,Grup de Nutricio
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Dietary fibre and meal size may regulate motility and digestive transit time through the gastrointestinal tract. We studied the effect of diets containing either white rice or oats (as low and high fibre sources, respectively), offered at two levels of feeding (41.4 and 82.4g feed/kg W0.75.day), on the kinetics of the rate of passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract until the ileum (pGIT) in pigs. Eight 45-kg pigs fitted with a T-cannula at the terminal ileum were used following a double Latin square design. The rate of digesta passage, lag time (Tlag) and mean retention time (MRT) through the ileal cannula were measured for 36h using titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Cr-mordanted fibre as indigestible markers for whole digesta and the fibrous phase of digesta, respectively. The effects of cereal source and feeding level and their interaction on the pGIT digesta kinetics parameters were analyzed for each marker. As expected, TiO2 had a shorter MRT than Cr-mordanted fibre (7.0h vs 10.4h; P<0.001), indicating that they followed different phases of digesta. Oats resulted in faster rate of digesta passage (P<0.05) than rice for Cr-mordanted fibre, and in longer Tlag (P<0.05) and MRT (P=0.05) for TiO2. No effect of feeding level or interaction between feeding level and cereal source were observed for any of the markers (P>0.1). It is concluded that the cereal source (i.e. fibre content), but not the feeding levels tested affect the pGIT kinetics of the rate of digesta passage in pigs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Perez-Vendrell A.M.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover | Torrallardona D.,Irta Center Mas Of Bover
Livestock Science | Year: 2010

Two experiments were conducted to study the effect of cereal source on the in vitro digestibility of pig feeds. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were evaluated using the multi-enzymatic method described by Boisen and Fernández (1997). The rate at which the different diets were digested, was estimated at 3 different time points: (1) after incubation with pepsin for 75 min; (2) after incubation with pepsin for 75 min and pancreatin for 3.5 h and; (3) after incubation with pepsin for 75 min, pancreatin for 3.5. h and carbohydrases for 18. h. In the first experiment, digestibility was evaluated in six diets containing 60% of rice (R), rice supplemented with wheat bran (RW), barley (B), maize (M), oats (O), or naked oats (NO). Diets containing NO and O had the highest digestibility after pepsin incubation, M, R and RW had the lowest and that of B was intermediate. After incubation with pepsin and pancreatin, digestibility was highest for R, RW and NO diets and lowest for M and O diets, B being intermediate. With the complete in vitro digestion procedure (pepsin, pancreatin and carbohydrases), R presented the highest digestibility followed by NO, M, B and O. In the second experiment, the effect of cereal extrusion was also evaluated in diets containing 60% of R, NO or B, either in raw or in extruded form (total of six diets). Following pepsin incubation, R presented a lower digestibility than B and NO; with pepsin and pancreatin incubations, NO presented the highest digestibility followed by R and B; and after incubation with pepsin, pancreatin and carbohydrases, R presented the highest digestibility followed by NO and B. It is concluded that cereals present differences in their in vitro digestion kinetics. This may be a useful tool to estimate possible differences in digestibility kinetics between cereals in the proximal gastrointestinal tract of the pig. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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