Gomez-Polo P.,IRTA Cabrils |
Alomar O.,IRTA Cabrils |
Castane C.,IRTA Cabrils |
Aznar-Fernandez T.,IRTA Cabrils |
And 3 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2015
BACKGROUND: The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) are common pests in Mediterranean lettuce crops, where Orius spp. are common generalist predators. Predation by Orius spp. was studied in a lettuce plot by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR analyses using specific primers of both main pests. Also, high-throughput sequencing was used to have a wider approach of the diet of these predators in natural field conditions. RESULTS: Molecular analyses indicated a higher predation on N. ribisnigri in spring and on F. occidentalis in summer. Predation on alternative prey, like Collembola, was also found in both seasons. Real-time PCR was more sensitive than conventional PCR in showing the target trophic links, whereas high-throughput sequencing revealed predation on other natural enemies - intraguild predation (IGP), showing other trophic interactions of Orius majusculus within the studied ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS: This study gives important information about the trophic relationships present in Mediterranean lettuce crops in different periods of the year. The detected predation by Orius spp. on alternative prey, as well as on other natural enemies, should be further investigated to clarify whether it adds or detracts to the biological control of N. ribisnigri and F. occidentalis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Martos S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona |
Torres E.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal Dar |
El Bakali M.A.,Laboratori Of Sanitat Vegetal Dar |
Raposo R.,CIFOR INIA |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2011
The technique consisting of the co-operational PCR coupled with dot blot hybridization and posterior colorimetric visualization was developed for the detection of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, one of the major pathogenic fungi involved in the Petri disease of grapevine. A partial region of the fungal rDNA including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified through co-operational PCR for P. chlamydospora and 17 additional grapevine-associated fungi included in the genera Botryosphaeria, Cryptovalsa, Cylindrocarpon, Dematophora, Diplodia, Dothiorella, Eutypa, Fomitiporia, Lasiodiplodia, Neofusicoccum, Phaeoacremonium, Phomopsis and Stereum, by using the primer pairs NSA3/NLC2 (external pair) and NSI1/NLB4 (inner pair). A specific probe (Pch2D) targeting the ITS2 region in the rDNA was developed for the detection of P. chlamydospora. Dot blot hybridizations carried out with the PCR products showed the specificity of the probe. Results indicated that Pch2D only hybridized with DNA amplicons of P. chlamydospora isolates, thus proving the specific detection of this fungus, while the 17 remaining species tested for the Pch2D probe resulted in negative results. Sensitivity of the technique was established below 0.1pg of genomic DNA. This technique was further validated using artificially inoculated grapevine cuttings with P. chlamydospora. The efficacy of detection was established at 80% after two independent blind assays. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Gemeno C.,University of Lleida |
Baldo G.,University of Lleida |
Nieri R.,Research and Innovation Center |
Valls J.,Hospital Universitari Arnau Of Vilanova Of Lleida Huav |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Insect Behavior | Year: 2015
The mirid bugs Macrolophus pygmaeus and M. costalis use substrate-borne vibrational signals during pair formation and in male-male interactions as determined by laser vibrometry. The vibrational communication of Macrolophus is more complex than in other mirids, with a signal repertoire composed of two elements, only produced by males, while the females are mute. The “yelp” signal consists of one or several consecutive brief pulses with harmonic structure and is commonly produced by stationary males before mating, as a key-element of courtship. “Yelping” is also associated with contacts between males. The “roar” signal differs from “yelps” in that it has a broadband frequency pattern, a longer and more variable duration than “yelping”, and is produced by males in association with walking on the leaf. Playback experiments did not affect male vibration emission, but when “roaring” was used as stimulus, it elicited a significant increase in the time spent walking. We detected significant differences between M. costalis and M. pygmaeus in some spectral parameters of the “roar” and “yelp” signals, so these signals could contain species-specific information. We conclude that “roaring” and “yelping” vibrational signals are used by Macrolophus in social communication, in particular in the context of mating behavior. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Elena G.,IRTA Cabrils |
Luque J.,IRTA Cabrils
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015
Inoculum longevity of Diplodia seriata occurring in grapevine pruning debris was studied to determine its role as a potential source for new infections on grapevines. Pruned canes naturally colonised by D. seriata were collected 2 years after pruning and kept outdoors in an experimental vineyard under natural conditions. Conidia production was monitored at the collection time and 6, 12 and 18 months later. In each monitoring period, the percentage of pycnidia containing conidia, the estimated average amount of conidia per pycnidium and the conidial germination percentage were assessed. A significant decrease in the percentage of pycnidia containing conidia was observed throughout the experiment. The average amount of conidia per pycnidium was reduced significantly, from 270 conidia per pycnidium 24 months after pruning, down to 25 conidia per pycnidium at the end of the assessment period. Germination percentage of conidia also decreased significantly, from 63 to 44 % within the same period. Overall, these results confirmed the reduction in the D. seriata inoculum available from the pruning debris through all the studied variables. However, 42 months after pruning viable conidia of D. seriata were still detected, thus revealing that pruning debris may become an important long-lasting inoculum source. © 2015 Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging