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Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Hama F.,IRSAT | Icard-Verniere C.,Montpellier University | Guyot J.-P.,Montpellier University | Picq C.,Montpellier University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2011

Traditional decortication of pearl millet and white sorghum by hand pounding or using a mechanical device were performed in Burkina Faso, and compared to abrasive decortication in the laboratory using the same kernel lots. Using some nutrients as histological markers, the decortication characteristics and nutritional composition (iron, zinc, phytates, lipids, ADF fibres and starch) of decorticated grains were measured. Decortication had numerous effects on grain composition but no significant differences were observed between the two traditional methods of decortication. The effects varied according to the type of grain mainly due to the fact that more germ was removed in sorghum than in millet, as the millet germ is more embedded in the endosperm. During abrasive decortication, zinc and lipid losses increased rapidly due to removal of the germ, particularly in sorghum. Phytates were shown to be located mainly in the bran and germ but also in the endosperm in millet. In both sorghum and millet, half the iron was removed when only 10% of grain DM was abraded. The method of decortication, shock or friction vs. abrasion, influenced the fractions removed and thus the chemical composition of the decorticated kernels. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hama F.,IRSAT | Icard-Verniere C.,IRD Montpellier | Guyot J.-P.,IRD Montpellier | Rochette I.,IRD Montpellier | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Two non-GMO biofortified and one traditional pearl millet varieties were compared in abrasive decortication studies to evaluate their potential for increasing iron and zinc content. The phytate-to-mineral ratios were used to estimate mineral bioavailability. Iron and zinc contents in the biofortified varieties Tabi and GB8735 were two to threefold higher than in the traditional variety. Iron content reached 7.2 and 6.7mg per 100g DM in the biofortified varieties, which corresponds to the target values of biofortification programs. Zinc content was, respectively, 5.6 and 4.1mg per 100g DM in the GB8735 and Tabi varieties. Because of the presence of phytate and other chelating factors that were only partially removed during decortication, there was no improvement in iron bioavailability in the biofortified varieties. But whatever extraction rate, phytate-to-zinc ratios ranged between 6 and 18; zinc absorption could be improved by using these biofortified varieties for food processing. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2012 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source

Songre-Ouattara L.T.,IRSAT | Mouquet-Rivier C.,IRD | Humblot C.,IRD | Rochette I.,IRD | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

To assess the ability of lactic acid bacteria to improve some nutritional characteristics of the pearl millet-soybean slurry to prepare complementary foods for young children in African countries, inoculation was performed using strains previously selected for their ability to hydrolyse starch, phytate, or α-galactooligosaccharides (α-GOS). For the sake of comparison with the action of a natural microflora, fermentation was also performed by back slopping inoculation, that is, with a sample obtained from spontaneously fermented traditional pearl millet slurry obtained from a small scale processing unit in Burkina Faso (Ouagadougou). Starter cultures thrived on the slurry as shown by counts on MRS agar, TTGE fingerprints, and fermentation patterns. The fermentation of precooked slurries inoculated by back slopping or with mixed cultures containing the amylolytic strain Lb. plantarum A6 enabled partial starch hydrolysis. Corresponding gruels had a suitable consistency for young child feeding at high dry matter content, and a high energy density: 88.7 ± 4.2 and 75.8 ± 5.1 kcal/100 g of sweetened gruel, for the gruels inoculated by back slopping or with Lb. plantarum A6, respectively. Unexpectedly, no decrease in phytates was observed in any of the experiments, suggesting the presence of one or more inhibitory compounds in soybean. Furthermore, preprocessing conditions before fermentation affect the carbohydrate composition of slurry and have a more profound effect than fermentation on the reduction of the α-GOS content. Practical Application:: This research aims to investigate the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to produce in a bioprocess high energy density and nutritious gruels for complementary feeding of young children from an African cereal (pearl millet) mixed with soybean. No claim to original US government worksJournal compilation © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Icard-Verniere C.,Montpellier University | Hama F.,IRSAT | Guyot J.-P.,Montpellier University | Picq C.,Montpellier University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Nutritionally, contaminant iron in foods may lead to overestimation of the satisfaction of iron requirement while iron deficiencies remain a widespread health problem. Iron contamination was measured in millet and sorghum grains after decortication and in-field milling using different equipments in Burkina Faso. Total iron content did not change significantly after decortication, probably due to a balance between losses resulting from the removal of iron-rich peripheral parts and contamination. Total iron contents increased significantly after mechanical milling irrespective of whether iron or corundum grindstones were used. Contamination was highly variable, ranging from 3 to 6 mg iron/100 g DM, and was mainly due to wear of the milling equipment. After in vitro digestion of traditional cereal dishes prepared with iron-contaminated or uncontaminated flours, the contaminant iron was found mainly in the insoluble fraction. Only in sorghum was a small proportion (4%) bioaccessible, showing that contaminant iron has poor nutritional interest. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

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