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Palembang, Indonesia

Putranto R.-A.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Duan C.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Chaidamsari T.,IBRIEC | Rio M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Tolerance of recurrent mechanical wounding and exogenous ethylene is a feature of the rubber tree. Latex harvesting involves tapping of the tree bark and ethephon is applied to increase latex flow. Ethylene is an essential element in controlling latex production. The ethylene signalling pathway leads to the activation of Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) transcription factors. This family has been identified in Hevea brasiliensis. This study set out to understand the regulation of ERF genes during latex harvesting in relation to abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. Analyses of the relative transcript abundance were carried out for 35 HbERF genes in latex, in bark from mature trees and in leaves from juvenile plants under multiple abiotic stresses. Twenty-one HbERF genes were regulated by harvesting stress in laticifers, revealing an overrepresentation of genes in group IX. Transcripts of three HbERF-IX genes from HbERF-IXc4, HbERF-IXc5 and HbERF-IXc6 were dramatically accumulated by combining wounding, methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments. When an ethylene inhibitor was used, the transcript accumulation for these three genes was halted, showing ethylene-dependent induction. Subcellular localization and transactivation experiments confirmed that several members of HbERF-IX are activator-type transcription factors. This study suggested that latex harvesting induces mechanisms developed for the response to abiotic stress. These mechanisms probably depend on various hormonal signalling pathways. Several members of HbERF-IX could be essential integrators of complex hormonal signalling pathways in Hevea. © 2015 Putranto et al. Source

Gouda P.K.,Barwale Foundation Barwale Chambers and 3 6 666 | Gouda P.K.,Monsanto Corporation | Saikumar S.,Barwale Foundation Barwale Chambers and 3 6 666 | Varma C.M.K.,Barwale Foundation Barwale Chambers and 3 6 666 | And 8 more authors.
Plant Breeding | Year: 2013

Rice blast, caused by fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is a serious disease causing considerable economic damage worldwide. Best way to overcome disease is to breed for disease-resistant cultivars/parental lines of hybrids. Pusa RH10, first aromatic, fine-grain rice hybrid released and cultivated extensively in India. Hybrid and its parental lines, Pusa 6A and PRR78, are highly susceptible to blast. CO39 pyramid carrying two dominant, broad-spectrum blast-resistance genes, viz. Pi-1 and Piz-5, used as a donor parent to introgress these genes into PRR78 using marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC). Microsatellite markers RM5926 and AP5659-5 tightly linked to Pi-1 and Piz-5 genes, respectively, were used for foreground selection to derive introgression lines. Further, these lines were evaluated for agronomic performance, disease reaction and cooking quality traits along with PRR78. Most of the improved lines were on par with PRR78 for all traits evaluated except gelatinization temperature. Recurrent parent genome percentage (RPG) study also revealed similarity of these lines with PRR78. Hybrids derived using improved PRR78 lines were superior over Pusa RH10 in terms of yield. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Verma K.C.,Lovely Professional University | Singh U.S.,IRRI | Verma S.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Gaur A.K.,University of the Humanities
International Journal of Ambient Energy | Year: 2016

The present study surveys the morphological, biochemical and molecular diversity in 30 accessions of Jatropha collected from different states of India by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isozyme analysis. The genotyping data were used to understand the relationships among accessions and to identify genetic diversity as a means for genetic improvement of Jatropha. Out of 37 decamer primers used, 18 yielded polymorphic banding pattern. In total, 126 different DNA bands were reproducibly obtained, out of which 81 were polymorphic. SDS-PAGE of seed, leaf and callus resolved into 18, 12 and 7 bands, while no biotype-specific band was found in leaf and callus protein profile. Cluster analysis of both RAPD and SDS-PAGE data produced two major clusters. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Ladha J.K.,International Rice Research Institute | Rao A.N.,International Rice Research Institute | Raman A.K.,International Rice Research Institute | Padre A.T.,International Rice Research Institute | And 15 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2016

South Asian countries will have to double their food production by 2050 while using resources more efficiently and minimizing environmental problems. Transformative management approaches and technology solutions will be required in the major grain-producing areas that provide the basis for future food and nutrition security. This study was conducted in four locations representing major food production systems of densely populated regions of South Asia. Novel production-scale research platforms were established to assess and optimize three futuristic cropping systems and management scenarios (S2, S3, S4) in comparison with current management (S1). With best agronomic management practices (BMPs), including conservation agriculture (CA) and cropping system diversification, the productivity of rice- and wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia increased substantially, whereas the global warming potential intensity (GWPi) decreased. Positive economic returns and less use of water, labor, nitrogen, and fossil fuel energy per unit food produced were achieved. In comparison with S1, S4, in which BMPs, CA and crop diversification were implemented in the most integrated manner, achieved 54% higher grain energy yield with a 104% increase in economic returns, 35% lower total water input, and a 43% lower GWPi. Conservation agriculture practices were most suitable for intensifying as well as diversifying wheat-rice rotations, but less so for rice-rice systems. This finding also highlights the need for characterizing areas suitable for CA and subsequent technology targeting. A comprehensive baseline dataset generated in this study will allow the prediction of extending benefits to a larger scale. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Sharma K.K.,Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture & Technology | Zaidi N.W.,IRRI | Singh U.S.,IRRI
Vegetos | Year: 2012

Species of Trichoderma are being widely used in agriculture as biological agent of plant disease control and biofertilizer for boosting plant growth. In our study, thirty isolates of Trichoderma (T. harzianum and T. virens) obtained from rhizospheric soil samples of different plants and locations of Uttarakhand were evaluated for enhancement of seed germination of paddy, tomato and mustard and their plant growth promotion activity. Maximum seeds germination was recorded with isolates PB 3, 6, 7, 15, 18, 23 & 28 (96.7%) for paddy, PB 23 & 28 (100%) for tomato and PB 28 (100%) for mustard seeds treated with Trichoderma respectively as compare to control in towel paper test. Maximum root length was recorded with isolate PB 15 (80.3%), PB 6 & 30 (60%) and PB 2 & 4 (59.7%) in rice, tomato and mustard respectively. Maximum shoot length was achieved with Isolate PB 8 (38.5%) in rice whereas PB16 promoted maximum shoot growth in both tomato and mustard by 32.1% and 28.7%. Source

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