Time filter

Source Type

MS, United States

Abreu Miranda M.,University of Sao Paulo | Lemos M.,University of Sao Paulo | Alves Cowart K.,Ironstone Separations Inc. | Rodenburg D.,Ironstone Separations Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Abstract Ethnopharmacological relevance Solanum cernuum Vell. (Solanaceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant, traditionally known as "panaceia". Its folk name is probably due to its wide range of applications in traditional medicine including the treatment of ulcers. Aim of the study To evaluate the gastroprotective activities of the hydroethanolic extract (ESC) of S. cernuum and its major isolated compounds using in vivo gastric ulcer models. Material and methods The ESC extract was obtained by maceration followed by percolation of the dried and powdered leaves of S. cernuum in ethanol:water (7:3). The major compounds in the extract were isolated by applying various preparative chromatographic techniques. The gastroprotective activity was evaluated in mice using different gastric ulcer-induced models. The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was performed using the agar-well diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Results The ESC extract showed gastroprotective effects in the assay of acute gastric ulcer-induced by HCl/EtOH, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer protocols. The results also demonstrated that the gastroprotection induced by ESC extract is related to the activity of nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryls, which are important gastroprotective factors. The ESC extract and the alkaloid cernumidine did not show activity against H. pylori in the concentrations tested. Conclusions The present study showed that the crude extract of S. cernuum possessed gastroprotective activity which corroborating the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of gastric ulcers. The isolated flavonoids, quercitrin and afzelin as well as the phenylpropanoid, isoferulic acid are suggested to be the compounds responsible for the gastroprotective activity of S. cernuum extract. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Avula B.,University of Mississippi | Khan S.I.,University of Mississippi | Tekwani B.L.,University of Mississippi | Dhammika Nanayakkara N.P.,University of Mississippi | And 3 more authors.
Biomedical Chromatography | Year: 2011

The clinical formulation of primaquine (PQ) is a mixture of (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)- primaquine enantiomers which may show different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To assess the efficacy and toxicity of primaquine enantiomers, a method using LC-MSD-TOF has been developed. The enantiomers were well separated using a Chiralcel OD column (250 × 4.6mm, 10μm) with a linear gradient of mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) and aqueous ammonium formate (20mm; 0.1% formic acid) adjusted to pH 5.9 at a flow rate of 0.7mL/min. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantification. The calibration curves were linear with all correlation coefficients being >0.999. The average recoveries of (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-primaquine and (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-carboxyprimaquine were 88 and 92%, respectively, in spiked human plasma and 89 and 93% respectively in spiked mouse plasma samples. The RSD of (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-primaquine and (-)-(R)- and (+)-(S)-carboxyprimaquine were 2.15, 1.74, 1.73 and 2.31, respectively, in spiked human plasma and 2.21, 1.09, 1.95 and 1.17% in spiked mouse plasma, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed as RSD were lower than 10% in all analyzed quality control levels. The method as reported is suitable for study of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the enantiomers of primaquine. The method was successfully applied to study plasma pharmacokinetic profile of enantiomers of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine in mice administered with primaquine in racemic form. The analytical method was found to be linear, accurate, precise and specific. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Nanayakkara N.P.D.,University of Mississippi | Tekwani B.L.,University of Mississippi | Herath H.M.T.B.,University of Mississippi | Sahu R.,University of Mississippi | And 13 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Hematotoxicity in individuals genetically deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is the major limitation of primaquine (PQ), the only antimalarial drug in clinical use for treatment of relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria. PQ is currently clinically used in its racemic form. A scalable procedure was developed to resolve racemic PQ, thus providing pure enantiomers for the first time for detailed preclinical evaluation and potentially for clinical use. These enantiomers were compared for antiparasitic activity using several mouse models and also for general and hematological toxicities in mice and dogs. (+)-(S)-PQ showed better suppressive and causal prophylactic activity than (-)-(R)-PQ in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei. Similarly, (+)-(S)-PQ was a more potent suppressive agent than (-)-(R)-PQ in a mouse model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. However, at higher doses, (+)-(S)-PQ also showed more systemic toxicity for mice. In beagle dogs, (+)-(S)-PQ caused more methemoglobinemia and was toxic at 5 mg/kg of body weight/day given orally for 3 days, while (-)-(R)-PQ was well tolerated. In a novel mouse model of hemolytic anemia associated with human G6PD deficiency, it was also demonstrated that (-)-(R)-PQ was less hemolytic than (+)-(S)-PQ for the G6PD-deficient human red cells engrafted in the NOD-SCID mice. All these data suggest that while (+)-(S)-PQ shows greater potency in terms of antiparasitic efficacy in rodents, it is also more hematotoxic than (-)-(R)-PQ in mice and dogs. Activity and toxicity differences of PQ enantiomers in different species can be attributed to their different pharmacokinetic and metabolic profiles. Taken together, these studies suggest that (-)-(R)-PQ may have a better safety margin than the racemate in human. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Fasinu P.S.,University of Mississippi | Tekwani B.L.,University of Mississippi | Nanayakkara N.P.D.,University of Mississippi | Avula B.,University of Mississippi | And 12 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2014

Background: Primaquine, currently the only approved drug for the treatment and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria, is still used as a racemic mixture. Clinical use of primaquine has been limited due to haemolytic toxicity in individuals with genetic deficiency in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Earlier studies have linked its therapeutic effects to CYP2D6-generated metabolites. The aim of the current study was to investigate the differential generation of the CYP2D6 metabolites by racemic primaquine and its individual enantiomers. Methods: Stable isotope 13C-labelled primaquine and its two enantiomers were incubated with recombinant cytochrome-P450 supersomes containing CYP2D6 under optimized conditions. Metabolite identification and time-point quantitative analysis were performed using LC-MS/MS. UHPLC retention time, twin peaks with a mass difference of 6, MS-MS fragmentation pattern, and relative peak area with respect to parent compound were used for phenotyping and quantitative analysis of metabolites. Results: The rate of metabolism of (+)-(S)-primaquine was significantly higher (50% depletion of 20 μM in 120 min) compared to (-)-(R)-primaquine (30% depletion) when incubated with CYP2D6. The estimated Vmax (μmol/min/mg) were 0.75, 0.98 and 0.42, with Km (μM) of 24.2, 33.1 and 21.6 for (±)-primaquine, (+)-primaquine and (-)-primaquine, respectively. Three stable mono-hydroxylated metabolites, namely, 2-, 3-and 4-hydroxyprimaquine (2-OH-PQ, 3-OH-PQ, and 4-OH-PQ), were identified and quantified. 2-OH-PQ was preferentially formed from (+)-primaquine in a ratio of 4:1 compared to (-)-primaquine. The racemic (±)-primaquine showed a pattern similar to the (-)-primaquine; 2-OH-PQ accounted for about 15-17% of total CYP2D6-mediated conversion of (+)-primaquine. In contrast, 4-OH-PQ was preferentially formed with (-)-primaquine (5:1), accounting for 22% of the total (-)-primaquine conversion. 3-OH-PQ was generated from both enantiomers and racemate. 5-hydroxyprimaquine was unstable. Its orthoquinone degradation product (twice as abundant in (+)-primaquine compared to (-)-primaquine) was identified and accounted for 18-20% of the CYP2D6-mediated conversion of (+)-primaquine. Other minor metabolites included dihydroxyprimaquine species, two quinone-imine products of dihydroxylated primaquine, and a primaquine terminal alcohol with variable generation from the individual enantiomers. Conclusion: The metabolism of primaquine by human CYP2D6 and the generation of its metabolites display enantio-selectivity regarding formation of hydroxylated product profiles. This may partly explain differential pharmacologic and toxicologic properties of primaquine enantiomers. © 2014 Fasinu et al.

Herath H.M.T.B.,University of Mississippi | McChesney J.D.,Ironstone Separations Inc. | Walker L.A.,University of Mississippi | Nanayakkara N.P.D.,University of Mississippi
Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals | Year: 2013

In support of a program to identify toxic metabolites of the antimalarial, primaquine, its [13C6] analog was prepared from [ 13C6] anisole in seven steps. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Discover hidden collaborations