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Gustafsson O.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Karim A.,Acreo Ab | Berggren J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Wang Q.,Acreo Ab | And 12 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2012

InSb-based quantum dots grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on InAs substrates are studied for use as the active material in interband photon detectors. Long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) photoluminescence is demonstrated with peak emission at 8.5 μm and photoresponse, interpreted to originate from type-II interband transitions in a p-i-n photodiode, was measured up to 6 μm, both at 80 K. The possibilities and benefits of operation in the LWIR range (8-12 μm) are discussed and the results suggest that InSb-based quantum dot structures can be suitable candidates for photon detection in the LWIR regime. © 2012 Optical Society of America. Source


Karim A.,Acreo Ab | Gustafsson O.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Savage S.,Acreo Ab | Wang Q.,Acreo Ab | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

We report on the device characterization of In(Ga)Sb/InAs quantum dots (QDs) based photodetectors for long wave IR detectors. The detection principle of these quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) is based on the spatially indirect transition between the In(Ga)Sb QDs and the InAs matrix, as a result of the type-II band alignment. Such photodetectors are expected to have lower dark currents and higher operating temperatures compared to the current state of the art InSb and mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) technology. The In(Ga)Sb QD structures were grown using metal-organic vapour-phase epitaxy and explored using structural, electrical and optical characterization techniques. Material development resulted in obtaining photoluminescence up to 10 μm, which is the longest wavelength reported in this material system. We have fabricated different photovoltaic IR detectors from the developed material that show absorption up to 8 μm. Photoresponse spectra, showing In(Ga)Sb QD related absorption edge, were obtained up to 200 K. Detectors with different In(Ga)Sb QDs showing different cut-off wavelengths were investigated for photoresponse. Photoresponse in these detectors is thermally activated with different activation energies for devices with different cut-off wavelengths. Devices with longer cut-off wavelength exhibit higher activation energies. We can interpret this using the energy band diagram of the dots/matrix system for different QD sizes. © 2013 SPIE. Source


Gustafsson O.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Karim A.,Acreo Ab | Wang Q.,Acreo Ab | Berggren J.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Infrared Physics and Technology | Year: 2013

We study the growth of self-assembled InGaSb/InAs quantum dots (QDs) and investigate how gallium can be used to reduce the optical transition energy in the InSb QD system. InGaSb QDs were grown on InAs (0 0 1) substrates by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and the material was characterized by photoluminescence (PL) measurements. A PL peak wavelength is demonstrated beyond 8 μm at 77 K, which is significantly longer than what has been reported for InSb QDs. The results suggest that InGaSb QDs can be grown at a larger size than InSb QDs leading to reduced confinement in the QDs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Gustafsson O.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Karim A.,Acreo Ab | Asplund C.,IRnova AB | Wang Q.,Acreo Ab | And 5 more authors.
Infrared Physics and Technology | Year: 2013

Self-assembled quantum-dot (QD) structures with type-II band alignment to the surrounding matrix material have been proposed as a III/V material approach to realize small-bandgap device structures suitable for photon detection and imaging in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) band. Here, we analyze the photoresponse of In0.5Ga0.5Sb/InAs QD photodiodes and estimate the system performance of type-II QD -based photodetectors. A review of alternative design approaches is presented and the choice of matrix material is discussed in terms of band alignment and its effect on the photoresponse. Photodiodes were fabricated consisting of 10 layers of In0.5Ga 0.5Sb QDs grown on InAs (0 0 1) substrates with metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The photoresponse and dark current were measured in single pixel devices as a function of temperature in the range 20-230 K. The quantum efficiency shows an Arrhenius type behavior, which is attributed to hole trapping. This severely limits the detector performance at typical LWIR sensor operating temperatures (60-120 K). A device design with the matrix material InAs0.6Sb0.4 is proposed as a mean to improve the performance by reducing the barrier for hole transport. This can potentially allow type-II InGaSb QDs to be a competitive sensor material for LWIR detection. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Malm H.,IRnova AB | Von Wurtemberg R.M.,IRnova AB | Asplund C.,IRnova AB | Martijn H.,IRnova AB | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

A mid wave infrared type-II superlattice focal plane array with 320x256 pixels, 30 μm pitch and 90 % fill factor was fabricated in house, using a conventional homojunction p-i-n photodiode design and the ISC9705 readout circuit. High-quality imaging up to 110 K is demonstrated with the substrate fully removed. The absorber is 2 μm thick, and no anti-reflection coating was used, so there is still room for significant improvement of the quantum efficiency, which is in the 40 % range. Studies of the dark current vs. temperature behavior indicate that the device is limited by Shockley-Read-Hall generation from the depletion region. The activation energy of this dark current component is 0.13 eV, suggesting an unidentified recombination center positioned halfway into the 0.24 eV bandgap. Furthermore, we report on detectors with 100 % cut-off at 13 μm. The dark current density at 60 K and -50 mV bias is 2x10-4 A/cm2. Quantum efficiency, NETD and BLIP temperature are also calculated. Position-sensitive photocurrent measurements on mesa-etched superlattice material were made at low temperatures using a focused laser spot. The lateral diffusion length for holes was extracted and is reported. © 2012 SPIE. Source

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