IRNASA

Salamanca, Spain
Salamanca, Spain

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Hernandez-Gonzalez A.,IRNASA | Santivanez S.,Instituto Peruano Of Parasitologia Clinica Y Experimental Inppace | Garcia H.H.,Instituto Peruano Of Parasitologia Clinica Y Experimental Inppace | Rodriguez S.,Instituto Peruano Of Parasitologia Clinica Y Experimental Inppace | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2012

A standardized test for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is still needed, because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the currently available commercial tools and the lack of proper evaluation of the existing recombinant antigens. In a previous work, we defined the new ELISA-B2t diagnostic tool for the detection of specific IgGs in CE patients, which showed high sensitivity and specificity, and was useful in monitoring the clinical evolution of surgically treated CE patients. Nevertheless, this recombinant antigen gave rise to false-negative results in a percentage of CE patients. Therefore, in an attempt to improve its sensitivity, we constructed B2t-derived recombinant antigens with two, four and eight tandem repeat of B2t units, and tested them by ELISA on serum samples of CE patients and patients with related parasites. The best diagnostic values were obtained with the two tandem repeat 2B2t antigen. The influence of several clinical variables on the performance of the tests was also evaluated. Finally, the diagnostic performance of the 2B2t-ELISA was compared with that of an indirect haemagglutination commercial test. The 2B2t recombinant antigen performed better than the HF and B2t antigens, and the IHA commercial kit. Therefore, this new 2B2t-ELISA is a promising candidate test for the serodiagnosis of CE in clinical settings. © 2012 Hernández-González et al.


Hernandez-Gonzalez A.,IRNASA | Valero M.L.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Pino M.S.D.,Research Center Principe Felipe | Oleaga A.,IRNASA | Siles-Lucas M.,IRNASA
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology | Year: 2010

Fasciolosis is a world-wide distributed zoonotic disease affecting several herbivores, and represents an important factor of economic loss in animal meat producing industries. In addition, specific risk factors and geographic areas for Fasciola hepatica human infection have been heavily reported recently. Several aspects related with this disease, e.g., drug resistance and prevention through vaccination, have yet to be solved. After ingestion, the infective stage for the vertebrate host-metacercariae - hatch in duodenum and the newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) penetrate the intestinal wall. The identification of proteins expressed by NEJ and specifically those found in the host-parasite interface could help understanding the first steps of animal and human infection by F. hepatica. Here we use a proteomic approach to identify a set of proteins enriched at the host-parasite interface from in vitro NEJ by applying liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Using this approach, we identified numerous proteins related with several biological processes of the parasite. In addition, we characterize one of the identified molecules, the 14-3-3z protein, and demonstrate its association with the outer structures of NEJ and its presence in both somatic and secretory components from the parasite. The NEJ proteins described here, together with those previously described by others, could provide new insights into the biology of the parasite and its relationship with the vertebrate host at the beginning of the infection. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Murciego A.,University of Salamanca | Alvarez-Ayuso E.,IRNASA | Pellitero E.,University of Salamanca | Rodriguez M.A.,University of Extremadura | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Mössbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As2O5). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Otones V.,IRNASA | Alvarez-Ayuso E.,IRNASA | Garcia-Sanchez A.,IRNASA | Santa Regina I.,IRNASA | Murciego A.,University of Salamanca
Geoderma | Year: 2011

The mobility and phytoavailability of arsenic in an area affected by the abandoned exploitation of an arsenical tungsten-tin deposit was studied to establish the current and eventual environmental risks and to propose possible remediation practices. Soil and plant samples were collected at different distances from the polluting sources and analyzed for their As content and distribution. Critical soil total concentrations of As were found, with values in the range 175-2300mgkg-1. The readily labile As contents represent <0.2% of the total concentrations, whereas the As contents more prone to be mobilized could rise up to 25%. Different phytostabilizing plants were identified, namely, Agrostis castellana (Boiss. & Reut.), Centaurea jacea L., Eryngium campestre L. and Scirpus holoschoenus L.. Such plants show important root bioaccumulation factor values in relation to the labile As contents (up to 197, 58, 201 and 88, respectively) and low translocation factor values (down to 0.170, 0.032, 0.173 and 0.036, respectively). Additionally to promote the revegetation with these plants, the species Rumex acetosella L. should be eliminated as this behaves as an index plant, reaching above-ground As concentrations up to 218mgkg-1. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Alvarez-Ayuso E.,IRNASA | Otones V.,IRNASA | Murciego A.,University of Salamanca | Garcia-Sanchez A.,IRNASA | Santa Regina I.,IRNASA
Geoderma | Year: 2013

An area affected by the long-term weathering of sphalerite-bearing mine wastes was studied in order to assess the environmental fate and behaviour of different toxic elements occurring in this mineral. Soil and plant samples were collected at different distances from the polluting sources and analysed for the content and distribution of Zn, Cd and Tl. Soils are highly polluted with Zn and Cd, reaching total concentrations up to 92,940 and 218mgkg-1, respectively. Soil contamination with Tl appears slight, with maximum total concentrations of 1.13mgkg-1. Mobile contents of Zn and Cd also reach high values, above 500 and 5mgkg-1, respectively. There is a great risk of an additional mobilization of Zn and Cd under acidic oxidizing conditions, whereas Tl mostly occurs in the residual fraction. Of the plants growing in this area, Jasione montana L. and Orchis maculata L. show a high risk of Cd incorporation in the trophic chain. These plants accumulate Cd concentrations up to 12.6 and 4.50mgkg-1 in their aerial parts. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Alvarez-Ayuso E.,IRNASA | Otones V.,IRNASA | Murciego A.,University of Salamanca | Garcia-Sanchez A.,IRNASA | Regina I.S.,IRNASA
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

A mining area affected by the abandoned mine exploitation of a stibnite deposit was studied to establish the current and eventual environmental risks and to propose possible remediation practices. Soil and plant samples were collected at different places in this area and analyzed for their Sb content and distribution. Critical soil total concentrations of Sb were found, with values ranging from 585 to 3184mgkg-1 dry weight in the uppermost soil layer, and decreasing progressively with soil depth. The readily labile Sb contents represent <2% of the total concentrations, whereas the soil Sb contents more susceptible of being mobilized under changing environmental conditions attain values of about 4-9% of the total concentrations. Remediation measures should be undertaken to limit off-site migration of Sb. Within the tolerant plant community growing in this area, the shrub Daphne gnidium L. stands out for its relatively high root Sb accumulation and low Sb translocation, suggesting its feasibility to be used in Sb phytostabilization strategies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Alvarez-Ayuso E.,IRNASA | Otones V.,IRNASA | Murciego A.,University of Salamanca | Garcia-Sanchez A.,IRNASA
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Soil pollution with antimony is of increasing environmental concern worldwide. Measures for its control and to attenuate the risks posed to the ecosystem are required. In this study the application of several iron and aluminium oxides and oxyhydroxides as soil amendments was evaluated in order to assess their feasibility to stabilize Sb in mining polluted soils. Mine soils with different pollution levels were amended with either goethite, ferrihydrite or amorphous Al oxide at various ratios (0-10%). The effectiveness of such treatments was assessed by both batch and column leaching tests. The use of ferrihydrite or amorphous Al oxide proved to be highly effective to stabilize Sb. Immobilization levels of 100% were found when doses of 5% ferrihydrite or 10% amorphous Al oxide were applied, regardless of the soil Sb load. Column leaching studies also showed a high Sb leaching reduction (>75%) when soils were amended with 1% ferrihydrite or 5% amorphous Al oxide. Moreover, such treatments proved to simultaneously immobilize As and Pb in a great extent when soils were also polluted with such toxic elements. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Alvarez-Ayuso E.,IRNASA | Gimenez A.,Endesa | Ballesteros J.C.,Endesa
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

The application of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum as an acid soil ameliorant was studied in order to establish the possible detrimental effects on plants and animals feeding on them caused by the high fluoride content in this by-product. A greenhouse experiment was conducted under controlled conditions to determine the F accumulation by two plant species (alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)) grown in acid soils amended with different FGD gypsum doses (0-10%). The F concentrations in plant aerial parts were comprised in the range 22-65mgkg -1, and those in plant roots varied from 49 to 135mgkg -1. The F contents in the above-ground plant tissues showed to decrease with the FGD gypsum application rate, whereas an inverse trend was manifested by plant roots. The increase in the soil content of soluble Ca as a result of the FGD gypsum addition seemed to play an important role in limiting the translocation of F to plant aerial parts. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Ruggieri F.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera | Saavedra J.,IRNASA | Fernandez-Turiel J.L.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera | Gimeno D.,University of Barcelona | Garcia-Valles M.,University of Barcelona
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

Volcanic ashes from the Puna and surrounding Andean areas in northern Argentina show that sometimes volcanic ash deposits are very well preserved (up to several million years) and can remain a potential hazard for the environment in a similar way as current deposits. Eight ashes have been characterized by SEM-EDX and DRX, and their potential released geochemical fluxes were examined by using water and nitric acid batches, which are analyzed by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and ISE (F). Results demonstrate that water batch system is better medium than nitric acid for this study. The high and fast reactivity of these ancient ashes is mainly associated with their high content in glass. The order of magnitude of released contents of implied elements is consistent among the samples, i.e., Al > B > Fe > Zn > F > P > Mn > Ba > Sr > Li > Ti > Rb > Cu > Ni > Sb > Pb > As > Cr > V Ash-water interaction, although infrequent in arid regions such as the Puna Region in northern Argentina, introduces rapid changes in the geochemical fluxes of elements and pH and may constitute a potential hazard for the environment. In fact, many of these elements are included in the drinking water guidelines due to their potential toxicity and may constitute potential hazards for the environment and human health. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Ruggieri F.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera | Fernandez-Turiel J.-L.,CSIC - Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera | Saavedra J.,IRNASA | Gimeno D.,University of Barcelona | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2011

The potential contribution to the local geochemical balance of five historical eruptions that occurred during the 20th Century has been investigated in the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ) of the Andean volcanic arc of South America (Lonquimay 1988, Hudson 1991, Copahue 2000, Llaima 2008, Chait́n 2008). These ashes were characterised by SEMEDX and XRD, and their potential released geochemical fluxes were examined using water and nitric acid batch leaching tests. Leachates were analysed by ICP-OES, ICP-MS and ISE. The major contents removed correspond to SO4 2- and Cl-. The potential toxic trace element (PTTE) content was highly variable among the ash samples following this order: Chaitén > Copahue > Hudson > Llaima > Lonquimay. The trace elements with significant load in water batch leaching tests include Fe > F > B > P > Zn > As > Mn > Sr > Ba > Ti > Cu > Ni > Li > Rb > Co > Cr > Cd > Sb. Some of these elements (As, Cu, F, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) are included in the drinking water guidelines due to their potential toxicity and must be especially monitored in the environmental assessment of these ashfall deposits. © 2011 CSIRO.

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