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Laffaye G.,University Paris - Sud | Phomsoupha M.,University Paris - Sud | Dor F.,IRMES
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2015

The goal of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal study, the Olympic Badminton Men’s singles finals from the Barcelona Games (1992) to the London Games (2012) to assess some changes of the Badminton game characteristics. Six Olympic finals have been analyzed based on the official video of the Olympic Games (OG) through the temporal structure and with a notational approach. In total, 537 rallies and 5537 strokes have been analyzed. The results show a change in the game’s temporal structure: a significant difference in the rally time, rest time and number of shots per rally (all p<0.0001; 0.09 < Ƞ² < 0.16). Moreover, the shot frequency shows a 34.0% increase (p<0.000001; Ƞ² = 0.17), whereas the work density revealed a 58.2% decrease (from 78% to 30.8%) as well as the effective playing time (-34.5% from 34.7±1.4% to 22.7±1.4%). This argues for an increase in the intensity of the game and a necessi-ty for the player to use a longer resting time to recover. Lastly, the strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced mistakes did not show any differences throughout the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. This results impact on the way the training of Badminton players should be designed, especially in the temporal structure and intensity. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.


Thibault V.,IRMES | Guillaume M.,IRMES | Berthelot G.,IRMES | El Helou N.,IRMES | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2010

Sex is a major factor influencing best performances and world records. Here the evolution of the difference between men and women's best performances is characterized through the analysis of 82 quantifiable events since the beginning of the Olympic era. For each event in swimming, athletics, track cycling, weightlifting and speed skating the gender gap is fitted to compare male and female records. It is also studied through the best performance of the top 10 performers in each gender for swimming and athletics. A stabilization of the gender gap in world records is observed after 1983, at a mean difference of 10.0% ± 2.94 between men and women for all events. The gender gap ranges from 5.5% (800-m freestyle, swimming) to 18.8% (long jump). The mean gap is 10.7% for running performances, 17.5% for jumps, 8.9% for swimming races, 7.0% for speed skating and 8.7% in cycling. The top ten performers' analysis reveals a similar gender gap trend with a stabilization in 1982 at 11.7%, despite the large growth in participation of women from eastern and western countries, that coincided with later-published evidence of state-institutionalized or individual doping. These results suggest that women will not run, jump, swim or ride as fast as men. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.


Berthelot G.,IRMES | Tafflet M.,IRMES | Tafflet M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Helou N.E.,IRMES | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress. We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints. © 2010 Berthelot et al.


Nassif H.,IRMES | Nassif H.,University of Paris Descartes | Sedeaud A.,IRMES | Sedeaud A.,University of Paris Descartes | And 11 more authors.
BMJ Open | Year: 2012

Objective: To analyse the physical fitness of a large sample of the French population across different ages. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Setting: Data were collected from the Athletic Track and Field Federation, which organised events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. The events took place in 22 regions between 2006 and 2010. Participants: French volunteer citizens (N=31 349) aged between 4 and 80 years old who participated in events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. Primary and secondary outcome measures: We assessed the results of the following fitness tests: 20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump, repeated squat jump, 4x10 m shuttle run, speed, flexibility and push-ups in relation to age and body mass index (BMI) using Spearman's rho, a one-way analysis of variance. A bi-exponential model was used to represent the performance with age. Results: Our major results showed higher performances for men and for subjects with normal BMI at all age groups except for the flexibility test. BMI was strongly correlated across all ages with physical fitness p<0.0001. Furthermore, through bi-exponential model, a mean peak performance was identified at 26.32 years of age for men and 22.18 years of age for women. Conclusions: Physical fitness assessment using a simple series of tests on the general population offers an important indicator of health status. The possibility of observing the evolution of fitness levels with time provides an important monitoring method from a public health perspective. Further research is needed to reinforce and evaluate the approach.


Berthelot G.,IRMES | Berthelot G.,University of Paris Descartes | Len S.,IRMES | Hellard P.,IRMES | And 10 more authors.
Age | Year: 2012

The physiological parameters characterizing human capacities (the ability to move, reproduce or perform tasks) evolve with ageing: performance is limited at birth, increases to a maximum and then decreases back to zero at the day of death. Physical and intellectual skills follow such a pattern. Here, we investigate the development of sport and chess performances during the lifetime at two different scales: the individual athletes' careers and the world record by age class in 25 Olympic sports events and in grandmaster chess players. For all data sets, a biphasic development of growth and decline is described by a simple model that accounts for 91.7%of the variance at the individual level and 98.5% of the variance at the species one. The age of performance peak is computed at 26.1 years old for the events studied (26.0 years old for track and field, 21.0 years old for swimming and 31.4 years old for chess). The two processes (growth and decline) are exponential and start at age zero. Both were previously demonstrated to happen in other human and non-human biological functions that evolve with age. They occur at the individual and species levels with a similar pattern, suggesting a scale invariance property. © The Author(s) 2011.


PubMed | IRMES
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2010

The growth law for the development of top athletes performances remains unknown in quantifiable sport events. Here we present a growth model for 41351 best performers from 70 track and field (T&F) and swimming events and detail their characteristics over the modern Olympic era. We show that 64% of T&F events no longer improved since 1993, while 47% of swimming events stagnated after 1990, prior to a second progression step starting in 2000. Since then, 100% of swimming events continued to progress.We also provide a measurement of the atypicity for the 3919 best performances (BP) of each year in every event. The secular evolution of this parameter for T&F reveals four peaks; the most recent (1988) followed by a major stagnation. This last peak may correspond to the most recent successful attempt to push forward human physiological limits. No atypicity trend is detected in swimming. The upcoming rarefaction of new records in sport may be delayed by technological innovations, themselves depending upon economical constraints.


To analyse the physical fitness of a large sample of the French population across different ages.Observational cross-sectional study.Data were collected from the Athletic Track and Field Federation, which organised events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. The events took place in 22 regions between 2006 and 2010.French volunteer citizens (N=31 349) aged between 4 and 80 years old who participated in events dedicated to measuring physical fitness.We assessed the results of the following fitness tests: 20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump, repeated squat jump, 410 m shuttle run, speed, flexibility and push-ups in relation to age and body mass index (BMI) using Spearmans rho, a one-way analysis of variance. A bi-exponential model was used to represent the performance with age.Our major results showed higher performances for men and for subjects with normal BMI at all age groups except for the flexibility test. BMI was strongly correlated across all ages with physical fitness p<0.0001. Furthermore, through bi-exponential model, a mean peak performance was identified at 26.32 years of age for men and 22.18 years of age for women.Physical fitness assessment using a simple series of tests on the general population offers an important indicator of health status. The possibility of observing the evolution of fitness levels with time provides an important monitoring method from a public health perspective. Further research is needed to reinforce and evaluate the approach.


PubMed | IRMES
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) | Year: 2012

The physiological parameters characterizing human capacities (the ability to move, reproduce or perform tasks) evolve with ageing: performance is limited at birth, increases to a maximum and then decreases back to zero at the day of death. Physical and intellectual skills follow such a pattern. Here, we investigate the development of sport and chess performances during the lifetime at two different scales: the individual athletes careers and the world record by age class in 25 Olympic sports events and in grandmaster chess players. For all data sets, a biphasic development of growth and decline is described by a simple model that accounts for 91.7% of the variance at the individual level and 98.5% of the variance at the species one. The age of performance peak is computed at 26.1years old for the events studied (26.0years old for track and field, 21.0years old for swimming and 31.4years old for chess). The two processes (growth and decline) are exponential and start at age zero. Both were previously demonstrated to happen in other human and non-human biological functions that evolve with age. They occur at the individual and species levels with a similar pattern, suggesting a scale invariance property.

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