Irish Economic and Social Research Institute
Irish Economic and Social Research Institute
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: Ocean.2010-1 | Award Amount: 14.85M | Year: 2011
The Arctic is engaged in a deep climatic evolution. This evolution is quite predictable at short (year) and longer scales (several decades), but it is the decadal intermediate scale that is the most difficult to predict. This is because the natural variability of the system is large and dominant at this scale, and the system is highly non linear due to positive and negative feedback between sea ice, the ocean and atmosphere. Already today, due to the increase of the GHG concentration in the atmosphere and the amplification of global warming in the Arctic, the impacts of climate change in the region are apparent, e.g. in the reduction in sea ice, in changes in weather patterns and cyclones or in the melting of glaciers and permafrost. It is therefore not surprising that models clearly predict that Artic sea ice will disappear in summer within 20 or 30 years, yielding new opportunities and risks for human activities in the Arctic. This climatic evolution is going to have strong impacts on both marine ecosystems and human activities in the Arctic. This in turn has large socio-economic implications for Europe. ACCESS will evaluate climatic impacts in the Arctic on marine transportation (including tourism), fisheries, marine mammals and the extraction of hydrocarbons for the next 20 years; with particular attention to environmental sensitivities and sustainability. These meso-economic issues will be extended to the macro-economic scale in order to highlight trans-sectoral implications and provide an integrated assessment of the socio-economic impact of climate change. An important aspect of ACCESS, given the geostrategic implication of Arctic state changes, will be the consideration of Arctic governance issues, including the framework UNCLOS (United Nations Convention for the Law of the Sea). ACCESS dedicates a full work package to integrate Arctic climate changes, socioeconomic impacts and Arctic governance issues.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2009-1.2.1. | Award Amount: 3.11M | Year: 2010
The primary objective of this research project is to produce a comprehensive study on the impact of market services on aggregate economic growth in the EU and its comparative performance relative to competitor regions, especially the US. The research is divided into three areas: Productivity and its drivers in service industries; Firm strategies in the knowledge-based economy and Internationalisation of service markets and growth. In the first area the project will explore the impact of intangible assets such as R&D and firm- specific training in explaining the EUs poor performance relative to the US. It will also examine interactions between information and communications technology and intangible investments to gauge to what extent these are complementary strategies to enhance productivity and growth. This area will also contain a detailed investigation of linkages between service sectors and manufacturing through trade in intermediate inputs, and the effect of the competitive and regulatory environment of service industries on growth in the EU. Area 2 on the knowledge based economy will investigate external sources of knowledge creation through an analysis of outsourcing of service functions in the service and the manufacturing sectors and will provide a detailed analysis of productivity and employment effects of innovation activities in different services industries and countries. The third area on internationalisation of services will analyse the extent of international trade, international investment and international outsourcing of services and investigate their impacts on productivity, employment and growth. The methods employed will be mostly quantitative economic analysis, supplemented by case studies. The results of the project will provide a significant advancement of the knowledge base on the impact of service industry performance for strengthening productivity, growth and employment in the EU and so will be a useful resource for policy makers.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH-2010-2.1-1 | Award Amount: 10.11M | Year: 2011
The objective of NEUJOBS is to imagine future, or rather various possible futures, under the conditions of the socioecological transition (and incorporating other key influences), map the implications for employment overall, but also in key sectors and relevant groups and integrate all of this together under a single intellectual framework. It will do so by combining EU-wide studies based on existing datasets with small-N comparative research dealing with one or more countries. Furthermore, the output will be a mix of quantitative and qualitative analysis, foresight activities and policy analysis. The proposal is organised in 23 workpackages that will run over a period of 48 months. The Consortium is composed by a team of 29 partners chosen among top research centres in Europe.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2007.1.1.6.1. | Award Amount: 4.61M | Year: 2008
There is increasing interest in the economics of climate change to inform policy on a) long-term targets, b) the costs of inaction (the economic effects of climate change), and c) the costs and benefits of adaptation. The objectives of this study are to advance knowledge across all three areas, i.e. the full economic costs of climate change, through the following tasks: 1. To identify and develop consistent climate change and socio-economic scenarios, including mitigation scenarios; 2. To quantify in physical terms, and economic costs, the costs of inaction for these scenarios, with bottom-up disaggregated (spatial) modelling for market and non-market sectors (coasts, health, ecosystems, energy, water, infrastructure) in the EU and other major negotiator countries (US, China, India). To extend analysis to quantify and value the costs and benefits of adaptation, and the residual costs of climate change after adaptation. 3. To asses the physical effects and economic damages of a number of the most important major catastrophic events and major socially contingent effects. 4. To update the mitigation costs of GHG emission reductions for medium and long-term reduction targets/ stabilisation goals. To include (induced) technological change, non CO2 GHG and sinks, and recent abatement technologies. 5. To quantify the ancillary air quality benefits of mitigation, using a spatially detailed dis-aggregated approach to quantify in physical terms and monetary benefits, in Europe and major negotiator countries. 6. To apply a number of complementary CGM and IAM models to incorporate the information from the tasks above. 7. To bring all the information above together to provide policy relevant output, including information on physical effects and economic values, and undertake analysis of policy scenarios. The project involves a multi-disciplinary team with leading impact and economic experts. It is innovative in developing bottom-up and top-down analysis within consistent scenarios and a single integrated framework, providing highly dis-aggregated outputs on impacts and economic costs.
McCrory C.,Irish Economic and Social Research Institute |
Layte R.,Irish Economic and Social Research Institute
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2012
Whether breastfeeding is protective against the development of childhood overweight and obesity remains the subject of considerable debate. Although a number of meta-analyses and syntheses of the literature have concluded that the greater preponderance of evidence indicates that breastfeeding reduces the risk of obesity, these findings are by no means conclusive. The present study used data from the Growing Up in Ireland study to examine the relationship between retrospectively recalled breastfeeding data and contemporaneously measured weight status for 7798 children at nine-years of age controlling for a wide range of variables including; socio-demographic factors, the child's own lifestyle-related behaviours, and parental BMI. The results of the multivariable analysis indicated that being breastfed for between 13 and 25 weeks was associated with a 38 percent (. p < 0.05) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine-years of age, while being breastfed for 26 weeks or more was associated with a 51 percent (. p < 0.01) reduction in the risk of obesity at nine-years of age. Moreover, results pointed towards a dose-response patterning in the data for those breastfed in excess of 4 weeks. Possible mechanisms conveying this health benefit include slower patterns of growth among breastfed children, which it is believed, are largely attributable to differences in the composition of human breast milk compared with synthesised formula. The suggestion that the choice of infant feeding method has important implications for health and development is tantalising as it identifies a modifiable health behaviour that is amenable to intervention in primary health care settings and has the potential to improve the health of the population. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-3.3-01 | Award Amount: 1.02M | Year: 2008
This study explores the transmission of religious beliefs and values through the education system and the family across different EU country contexts. Firstly, it examines the importance of religious denomination in school choice. Secondly, it explores how religious beliefs and values are transmitted in the course of primary education across different countries. The study will use both primary research and secondary analysis of existing data sources. The study will use existing cross-national data to assess the treatment of majority and minority religious groups along with those with secular beliefs across different European contexts. This will identify different models of how religious belief is treated in diverse educational systems. Located within this broad overview, primary research will be carried out in primary schools in Belgium (Flanders), Germany, Ireland, Malta, and Scotland, countries with very different religious compositions and educational systems. This research will involve case-studies of schools selected to capture diversity in school policy and practice. Within these schools, interviews will be carried out with school principals, teachers, members of the board of management, parents and students themselves to provide a holistic picture of the interaction between home and school in shaping the transmission of religious belief. The results of the study will be disseminated widely through seminars and publications as well as a public website. This innovative project will contribute to the conceptualisation of religious socialisation within multicultural settings and to policy development in the educational arena by highlighting the role of religion in school choice as well as potential tensions between home and school regarding religious formation and practice.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: SSH.2013.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 6.46M | Year: 2014
The overriding aim of this project is to conduct a comparative EU wide analysis on youth unemployment that is sensitive to gender, ethnic and class differences and the historical legacies of multi-level institutions shaping relevant policies. This aim will be achieved through 10 objectives organized around 12 research, management, dissemination and scientific coordination work packages. There are three cross-cutting research WPs that examine Performance, Policy Learning and its limitations and include the production of an International Handbook on Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe; Six substantive research WPs focus on issues of: Labour Market Mismatch in terms of education and skills as well as geographical mobility; Family and Cultural barriers to employment and, the opportunities and consequences of Self-Employment and Flexicurity. The central concept informing this project is based on a policy learning approach to address youth unemployment. This involves an ongoing process of including a wide range of EU stakeholders to inform the research and disseminate the results in different institutional conditions. It provides a recent historical analysis accounting for factors prior to, and following on from, the on-going economic crisis. It informs policy makers about of what works and why. The consortium will achieve the expected impact of 1) advancing the knowledge base of employment strategies to overcome youth unemployment, defining measures, methods and evaluations, 2) creating a critical network of stakeholder organisation. Outputs will include: An International Handbook on Strategic Transitions for Youth Labour in Europe. Multimedia dissemination: working papers, policy briefings, newsletters, press coverage and video podcasts. A comparative analyses of where and under which circumstances innovative and effective policies for getting young people into work are evident, where these policies work and why; Policy recommendations, from both case studies and quantitative analysis, on the impacts of these employment strategies; Timely and professional dissemination to key stakeholders facilitated by the partner EurActiv. Three WPs focus on the management, dissemination and scientific coordination of the project to achieve these objectives and outputs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: SSH-2007-8.0-03;SSH-2007-8.0-04 | Award Amount: 1.27M | Year: 2008
PLATON\ aims to catalyze dissemination of the European research in Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities (SSH) as well as to capitalize SSH research results and assets across non-SSH research areas / themes. The proposed project will operate as a central hub for the dissemination of SSH research so as to (a) facilitate integration and coordination of SSH (-related) research under FP7 and to (b) exploit horizontally the competences of European SSH researchers for the benefit of European research. Under this context, the project will systematically deploy a set of diversified dissemination & valorisation actions that will enhance the integration of the SSH research community in non-SSH themes and are expected to have a long lasting effect, well beyond the projects lifetime. PLATON\ activities target 4 -priority groups: Research community, Policy / decision makers (European, national, regional), Business community and CSOs. PLATON\ differentiates from existing similar / complementary projects by setting its center of gravity in: (i) The wide use of a variety of the latest information and communication applications which are integrated in its web-portal. The latter is expected to operate as a Virtual Knowledge Hub for SSH research stakeholders. (ii) The systematic collaboration with complementary and similar projects. (iii) Stimulating collaboration with FP6-CITIZENS & FP7-SSH research projects and highly experienced and networked SSH organizations. Overall, more than 1.300 people will participate in PLATON\ events, 15.000 users are expected to visit the project web-portal. The project mobilises a multidisciplinary and multicultural consortium of 12 partners from 10 countries, which will take particular care to optimize the use of the project resources within the 30 months of the project duration and to maximize its impact.
Turner M.J.,Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital |
Layte R.,Irish Economic and Social Research Institute
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal obesity that is calculated 9 months after delivery and sociodemographic variables. Study Design: A national cohort of mothers was sampled 9 months after delivery as part of the Growing Up in Ireland Study Infant Cohort. Sociodemographic and clinical details were recorded at the interview by trained fieldworkers who used validated questionnaires. Body mass index was calculated based on weight and height measurements at the postpartum interview. The unadjusted and adjusted odds of obesity were calculated for predictor variables with the use of logistic regression analysis. Results: Of the 10,524 mothers whose cases were studied, the mean age was 31.6 ± 5.5 years, and the mean parity was 1.0 ± 1.1. The mean body mass index after delivery was 25.7 ± 5.4 kg/m2; 16.8% of the women (n = 1768) were obese. Postpartum maternal obesity levels were associated positively on univariable analyses with smoking, lower household income, African nationality, earlier completion of full-time education, gestational weight gain, lower breast-feeding duration, and increasing parity. On multivariable analysis, maternal obesity was associated with increasing parity in lower income households, but not in higher income households. Conclusion: Public health interventions that are aimed at decreasing obesity levels after childbirth should prioritize women who are disadvantaged socioeconomically. © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nolan A.,Irish Economic and Social Research Institute
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice | Year: 2010
This paper examines the determinants of household car ownership, using Irish longitudinal data for the period 1995-2001. This was a period of rapid economic and social change in Ireland, with the proportion of households with one or more cars growing from 74.6% to 80.8%. Understanding the determinants of household car ownership, a key determinant of household travel behaviour more generally, is particularly important in the context of current policy developments which seek to encourage more sustainable means of travel. In this paper, we use longitudinal data to estimate dynamic models of household car ownership, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and state dependence. We find income and previous car ownership to be the strongest determinants of differences in household car ownership, with the effect of permanent income having a stronger and more significant effect on the probability of household car ownership than current income. In addition, income elasticities differ by previous car ownership status, with income elasticities higher for those households with no car in the initial period. Other important influences include household composition (in particular, the presence of young children) and lifecycle effects, which create challenges for policymakers in seeking to change travel behaviour. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.