Masi F.,IRIDRA Srl |
El Hamouri B.,Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II IAV |
Abdel Shafi H.,National Research Center of Egypt |
Baban A.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center |
Regelsberger M.,AEE - Institute of Sustainable Technologies
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010
Concerns about water shortage and pollution have received increased attention over the past few years, especially in developing countries with warm climate. In order to help local water management in these countries, the Euro-Mediterranean Regional Programme (MEDA) has financed the Zer0-m project (www.zer0-m.org). As a part of this project, several constructed wetland (CW) pilot systems with different pre-treatments have been implemented in four Technological Demonstration Centres in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The aim of this research was to establish appropriate designs for treatment of segregated domestic black (BW) and grey water (GW). We tested several different multistage CW configurations, consisting of horizontal and vertical subsurface flow CW for secondary treatment and free water systems as tertiary stage. CW removal efficiencies of TSS, COD, BOD5, N-NH4 +, N-NO3, Ntot, total coliforms (TC) were evaluated for each of the implemented systems. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of CWs as a suitable technology for treating segregated domestic wastewater. A very efficient COD reduction (up to 98%) and nitrification (92-99%) was achieved for BW and GW in all systems. CW effluent concentrations were below 15 mg/L for BOD5, 1 mg/L for N-NO3 and 0.5 mg/L for N-NH4 + together with acceptable TC counts. Based on these results, we suggest adopting the design parameters used in this study for the treatment of segregated wastewater in the Mediterranean area. © IWA Publishing 2010.
Ghrabi A.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria |
Bousselmi L.,Center de Biotechnologie de la Technopole de Borj-Cedria |
Masi F.,IRIDRA Srl |
Regelsberger M.,AEE - Institute of Sustainable Technologies
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2011
The paper presents the detailed design and some preliminary results obtained from a study regarding a wastewater treatment pilot plant (WWTPP), serving as a multistage constructed wetland (CW) located at the rural settlement of 'Chorfech 24' (Tunisia). The WWTPP implemented at Chorfech 24 is mainly designed as a demonstration of sustainable water management solutions (low-cost wastewater treatment), in order to prove the efficiency of these solutions working under real Tunisian conditions and ultimately allow the further spreading of the demonstrated techniques. The pilot activity also aims to help gain experience with the implemented techniques and to improve them when necessary to be recommended for wide application in rural settlements in Tunisia and similar situations worldwide. The selected WWTPP at Chorfech 24 (rural settlement of 50 houses counting 350 inhabitants) consists of one Imhoff tank for pre-treatment, and three stages in series: as first stage a horizontal subsurface flow CW system, as second stage a subsurface vertical flow CW system, and a third horizontal flow CW. The sludge of the Imhoff tank is treated in a sludge composting bed. The performances of the different components as well as the whole treatment system were presented based on 3 months monitoring. The results shown in this paper are related to carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal as well as to reduction of micro-organisms. The mean overall removal rates of the Chorfech WWTPP during the monitored period have been, respectively, equal to 97% for total suspended solids and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5), 95% for chemical oxygen demand, 71% for total nitrogen and 82% for P-PO 4. The removal of E. coli by the whole system is 2.5 log units. © IWA Publishing 2011.
Masi F.,IRIDRA srl.
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2015
This paper presents one case of wastewater management approach in rural area. The design and the implementation of the solution have been developed in close consultation with the stakeholders and national authorities. The objectives are (i) to solve the problems of the uncontrolled wastewater discharged into nature without treatment, and (ii) to set up a robust solution to be recommended for application in rural school in Tunisia, devoid of sanitation system and characterized by limited financial resources for water supply and sanitation services. Several equipments to save water (push-button taps, waterless urinals, rainwater harvesting) is set up. The sanitation system consists of septic tank followed by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. The treated wastewaters are used in the irrigation of the garden. The evaluation of the performances of the system after 3 years is presented. © IWA Publishing 2015.
Masi F.,IRIDRA Srl |
Bresciani R.,IRIDRA Srl
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015
In this study, a novel strategy for olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment, which combines an evaporation-condensation step followed by the biological treatment of the condensate, was evaluated. Different solutions were evaluated as biological step, through a experimental tests, by operating for three weeks: two bench scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR), with and without media for attached growth, and two pilot scale constructed wetlands, a vertical (VF) and a horizontal (HF) submerged flow beds. When treating an influent OMW with a COD concentration in the range from 130 to 150gL-1, the evaporation/condensation process allowed to achieve up to 98.7% of COD removal (2.4gCODL-1 in average in the condensate); moreover, the condensate showed a large biodegradable fraction, allowing the further treatment of the residual COD by simple biological reactors like SBRs or constructed wetlands (CWs). The CWs, either in HF or VF configuration, showed more stable and barely higher performances in comparison with the SBR, especially during the first week of operation and allowed to obtain an effluent with a pH close to neutrality without alkalinity dosing. The overall COD removal was about 99.8% and less than two weeks were needed for the start-up of the biological system, which is of pivotal importance given the olive mill process cycle. The evaporation process also generated a concentrate containing a high concentration of valuable chemicals, including polyphenols. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.6-1 | Award Amount: 1.78M | Year: 2012
The here proposed NAwATech Europe proposal is closely interconnected with the partner project NaWaTech India. In order to reach the maximal impact the two projects have formed one common work plan for both projects, targeting the same objectives, will present their results at the same web-site and formed a joint management team. Providing adequate water supply and sanitation, particularly in urban areas, is a challenging task for governments throughout the world. This task is made even more difficult due to predicted dramatic global changes. In order to cope with water shortages in urban areas, there is a need for a paradigm shift from conventional end-of-pipe water management to an integrated approach. This integrated approach should include several actions such as: (i) interventions over the entire urban water cycle; (ii) optimisation of water use by reusing wastewater and preventing pollution of freshwater source; (iii) prioritisation of small-scale natural and technical systems, which are flexible, cost-effective and require low operation and maintenance. Natural water systems, such as manmade wetlands and sub-soil filtration and storage via soil aquifer treatment and bank filtration, are such systems. NaWaTech stands for natural water systems and treatment technologies to cope with water shortages in urbanised areas in India. The concept is based on optimised use of different urban water flows by treating each of these flows via a modular natural system taking into account the different nature and degree of pollution of the different water sources. Thus, it will cost-effectively improve the water quality of urban surface water and restore depleting groundwater sources. Due to the multi-barrier approach, these systems will also be able to treat heavily polluted water (i.e. wastewater) in order to reuse them and to supplement traditional sources to cope with water shortages today and in the future.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2012.6.2-1 | Award Amount: 11.49M | Year: 2012
Despite improved understanding of the links between ecosystem health, provision of ecosystem services and human well-being, further conceptual and empirical work is needed to make the ideas of ecosystem services (ESS) and natural capital (NC) operational. OpenNESS will therefore develop innovative and practical ways of applying them in land, water and urban management: it will identify how, where and when the concepts can most effectively be applied to solve problems. To do this, it will work with public and private decision makers and stakeholders to better understand the range of policy and management problems faced in different case study contexts (ranging across locales, sectors, scales and time). OpenNESS will consolidate, refine and develop a range of spatially-explicit methods to identify, quantify and value ecosystem services, and will develop hybrid assessment methods. It will also explore the effectiveness of financial and governance mechanisms, such as payments for ecosystem services, habitat banking, biodiversity offsetting and land and ecosystem accounting. These types of interventions have potential for sustaining ESS and NC, and for the design of new economic and social investment opportunities. Finally, OpenNESS will assess how current regulatory frameworks and other institutional factors at EU and national levels enable or constrain consideration of ESS and NC, and identify the implications for issues related to well-being, governance and competitiveness. OpenNESS will analyse the knowledge that is needed to define ESS and NC in the legal, administrative and political contexts that are relevant to the EU. The work will deliver a menu of multi-scale solutions to be used in real life situations by stakeholders, practitioners, and decision makers in public and business organizations, by providing new frameworks, data-sets, methods and tools that are fit-for-purpose and sensitive to the plurality of decision-making contexts.
Rizzo A.,Iridra S.r.l. |
Langergraber G.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016
Horizontal flow constructed wetlands (HF CWs) have shown a good efficiency in the treatment of highly variable influent loads (e.g. touristic facilities, stormwater). However, recent studies have highlighted the possibilities of HF CW failure in treatment of high sudden loads. In order to limit excessive overestimation of the required surface area to face sudden loads, a more indepth understanding of HF response to time-variable loads is needed. With this objective in mind, the response of HF CWs to time-variable loads is investigated using a modeling approach. A validated process-based numerical model of a laboratory HF CW (1.1 m × 0.76 m × 0.3 m) is used to study the response to both hourly and daily sudden loads, according to the specifications for the daily load pattern given in the European Standards for testing small wastewater treatment plants. During nominal load, the system was loaded with 10 l of artificial wastewater per day with 954 mgCOD/l and 21 mgNH4−N/l. In addition to nominal load phase, high and low load phases with periods of 2 weeks with 50% higher and lower organic loads were simulated, respectively. The HF CW showed a good capacity to cope with the hourly variations, as concentrations at the outlet were constant (effluent concentrations of 319 mg COD/l and 108 mg NH4-N/l, respectively). During the high load phase, the COD effluent concentration was increased by 16% whereas the NH4-N effluent concentrations were decreased by 5%, respectively. During the low load phase, the COD effluent concentrations was decreased by 16% and the NH4-N effluent concentrations increased by 3%, respectively. After the end of the high and low load events, the system was able to recover original removal performances. The results of this work provide novel insights into the internal processes of a HF CW facing time-variable loads, as well as providing interesting insights for future designers. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Rizzo A.,Polytechnic University of Turin |
Rizzo A.,Iridra S.r.l. |
Boano F.,Polytechnic University of Turin |
Revelli R.,Polytechnic University of Turin |
Ridolfi L.,Polytechnic University of Turin
Advances in Water Resources | Year: 2015
High methane (CH4) fluxes emitted from paddy fields strongly contribute to the accumulation of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, compromising the eco-compatibility of one of the most important world foods. A strong link exists between infiltration rates of irrigation water and CH4 emissions. Since depth to the groundwater table affects infiltration rates, a relevant groundwater impact is expected on CH4 emissions from paddy fields. In this work, a theoretical approach is adopted to investigate the aquifer effect on CH4 dynamics in paddies. Infiltration rates are strongly affected by the development of different connection states between aquifer and irrigation ponded water. A strong reduction in infiltration rates results from a water table near to the soil surface, when the system is hydraulically connected. When the groundwater level increases, the infiltration rate reduction due to the switch from disconnected to connected state promotes a relevant increase of CH4 emissions. This is due to a strong reduction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) percolation, which leads to higher DOC availability for microbial CH4 production and, consequently, higher CH4 emissions. Our simulations show that CH4 fluxes can be reduced by up to 24% when groundwater level is decreased and the aquifer is disconnected from ponding water. In paddies with shallow aquifers, lowering the water table with a drainage system could thus represent a promising CH4 mitigation option. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Masi F.,IRIDRA Srl |
Rizzo A.,IRIDRA Srl |
Bresciani R.,IRIDRA Srl |
Conte G.,IRIDRA Srl
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2016
Three sampling campaigns have been done in 2014-2015 in order to temporally characterize CSOs quality and quantity during representative and seasonal-specific rain events, and to estimate the ecosystem service of a CSO-CW located in Northern Italy in terms of water quality improvement. The adoption of an on-site treatment by Constructed Wetlands for the Combined Sewer Overflows is an example of decentralized approach for the optimization of the existing sewer networks and the needed reduction of their impacts on the water quality of the receiving water bodies. The CW system, that is treating the first flush of the overflows, is joined with an extended retention basin that is acting as a tertiary treatment for the CW effluents and is also storing and treating the whole second flush, slowing down by a throttle the discharge in the river and therefore playing a role in the flooding risk control. During the monitored time interval 69 events of overflow discharges have been observed and quantified; this quantification of the total volumes discharged by the specific CSO have been useful for evaluating the approach performances also in terms of mass loads in a single year, that is in the author's opinion a more conservative evaluation than comparing only the average concentrations removal rates. The obtained results have shown that on-site treatment for the first flush by CWs can obtain appropriate performances, as demonstrated by the about 87% and 93% of removal for COD and NH4 + respectively in terms of concentrations and the 68% and 94% in terms of mass loads in a year. A relevant analysis of the sampling program and the secondary services provided by this specific artificial ecosystems are discussed in the paper, together with a unique characterization of the role of the specific sources (washout, urban wastewater) to the loads that are reaching the on-site treatment unit. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
PubMed | IRIDRA Srl
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2010
Concerns about water shortage and pollution have received increased attention over the past few years, especially in developing countries with warm climate. In order to help local water management in these countries, the Euro-Mediterranean Regional Programme (MEDA) has financed the Zer0-m project (E-mail: www.zer0-m.org). As a part of this project, several constructed wetland (CW) pilot systems with different pre-treatments have been implemented in four Technological Demonstration Centres in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The aim of this research was to establish appropriate designs for treatment of segregated domestic black (BW) and grey water (GW). We tested several different multistage CW configurations, consisting of horizontal and vertical subsurface flow CW for secondary treatment and free water systems as tertiary stage. CW removal efficiencies of TSS, COD, BOD(5), N-NH(4)(+), N-NO(3)(-), N(tot), total coliforms (TC) were evaluated for each of the implemented systems. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of CWs as a suitable technology for treating segregated domestic wastewater. A very efficient COD reduction (up to 98%) and nitrification (92-99%) was achieved for BW and GW in all systems. CW effluent concentrations were below 15 mg/L for BOD(5), 1 mg/L for N-NO(3)(-) and 0.5 mg/L for N-NH(4)(+) together with acceptable TC counts. Based on these results, we suggest adopting the design parameters used in this study for the treatment of segregated wastewater in the Mediterranean area.