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Firenze, Italy

Gunes K.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Tuncsiper B.,Nigde University | Masi F.,IRIDRA | Ayaz S.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2011

Nowadays, use of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment especially in rural areas has become increasingly preferable. The most important reason behind this fact is its relatively low investment cost over other treatment options depending on economical conditions of the country. Nonetheless, due to lower operational costs of constructed wetlands than other conventional wastewater treatment systems, investment costs could be regarded secondary as of importance. Investment costs could show differences even at regional scale in a country. Choosing a constructed wetland system among "Subsurface Horizontal Flow", "Subsurface Vertical Flow" or "Free Water Surface Flow"; or designing a hybrid system using concurrent systems plays important role when defining costs of the constructed wetland systems. Due to increasing interest for constructed wetlands since 2003, so many constructed wetland systems have been built in rural parts of Turkey and most of these systems have been designed as horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system. As a fact, the cost of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands is comparatively higher than other wetland systems. When different applications in the world are examined, it is observed that mostly horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland systems are preferred in rural areas. According to the studies within the extent of this work, different constructed wetland types which are built in different regions of Turkey and their expected and realized costs are analyzed and compared with other countries. Moreover, operational costs have been calculated. Consequently, a work to be taken as reference for further scientific studies has been prepared with presented wetland analyses which could be used by especially decision makers and researchers. © IWA Publishing 2011. Source


Masi F.,IRIDRA | Caffaz S.,Publiacqua SPA
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2013

In the present paper the detailed design and performances of two municipal wastewater treatment plants, a four-stage constructed wetlands (CW) system located in the city of Dicomano (about 3,500 inhabitants) in Italy, and a three-stage CW system for the village of Chorfech (about 500 inhabitants) in Tunisia, are presented. The obtained results demonstrate that multi-stage CWs provide an excellent secondary treatment for wastewaters with variable operative conditions, reaching also an appropriate effluent quality for reuse. Dicomano CWs have shown good performances, on average 86% of removal for the Organic Load, 60% for Total Nitrogen (TN), 43% for Total Phosphorus (TP), 89% for Total Suspended Solids (TSS) and 76% for Ammonium (NH4). Even the disinfection process has performed in a very satisfactory way, reaching up to 4-5 logs of reduction of the inlet pathogens concentration, with an Escherichia coli average concentration in the outlet often below 200 UFC/ 100 mL. The mean overall removal rates of the Chorfech CWs during the monitored period have been, respectively, equal to 97% for TSS and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), 95% for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 71% for TN and 82% for TP. The observed removal of E. coli by the CW system was in this case 2.5 log units. © IWA Publishing 2013. Source


Wu S.,China Agricultural University | Wallace S.,Naturally Wallace Consulting | Brix H.,University of Aarhus | Kuschk P.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2015

The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Gajewska M.,Technical University of Gdansk | Jozwiakowski K.,Lublin University of Life Sciences | Ghrabi A.,Research Center for Water Technologies | Masi F.,IRIDRA
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Nitrogen removal in treatment wetlands is influenced by many factors, and the presence of electron donors (biodegradable organic matter) and electron acceptors (nitrate ions) is the main limiting one; for obtaining these conditions, multistage treatment wetlands (MTWs) are required, where an extensive nitrification can be obtained in the first stages under aerobic conditions leaving then to the following anoxic/anaerobic stages the duty of the denitrification. Most of the biodegradable organic matter is however oxidised in the first stages, and therefore, the inlet to the denitrification beds is usually poor of easily degradable carbon sources. This study is comparing the long-term performances obtained at several MTWs operating in Europe (North and South) and North Africa in order to understand if there is a significant avail in making use of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratio during the design phase for ensuring proper performances in terms of N overall removal. The statistic analysis performed in this study have shown that MTWs are capable to ensure sufficient removal of both organic and nutrients even in unfavourable proportions of macronutrients (C and N). The usual assumptions for conventional biological treatment systems concerning adequate C/N ratios seem to be dubious in case of wastewater treatment in MTWs. © 2014, The Author(s). Source


Gunes K.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Tuncsiper B.,Nigde University | Drizo A.,Heriot - Watt University | Masi F.,IRIDRA | And 2 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

In this study, a riverine constructed wetland system (RCWS) was monitored with the aim to investigate its functionality and cost-effectiveness in treating domestic wastewater. Turkey’s second biggest freshwater lake, Eğirdir lake, is becoming polluted directly and indirectly with both domestic and diffuse pollution sources. In this paper we: (1) describe a water quality monitoring campaign on an existing long drainage channel where the majority of pollution originates from untreated urban sewage (2) discuss the design parameters and some considerations for a new RCWS to diminish and eliminate domestic and diffuse pollution loads originating from Gelendost and Yaka. In our design considerations, (1) we projected population increase over a 30-year period, which resulted in total 12,000 population equivalent, including the drainage network run-off originating from agriculture; (2) we aim to achieve 90% reduction in chemical oxygen demand, 70% of nitrogen (N) and 40% of total phosphorus. To achieve design objectives, we propose that the new RCWS consists of six horizontal flow CW and seven FWS systems, laid out within the drainage channel bed itself. This project would represent one of the few systems specifically designed to provide diffuse pollution treatment, and would be the first system of this kind in Turkey. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

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