IRET Foundation

Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy

IRET Foundation

Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy
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Sivilia S.,University of Bologna | Lorenzini L.,University of Bologna | Giuliani A.,University of Bologna | Gusciglio M.,University of Bologna | And 15 more authors.
BMC Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Background: Alzheimer disease is a multifactorial disorder characterized by the progressive deterioration of neuronal networks. The pathological hallmarks includes extracellular amyloid plaques and intraneuronal neurofibrillary tangles, but the primary cause is only partially understood. Thus, there is growing interest in developing agents that might target multiple mechanisms leading to neuronal degeneration. CHF5074 is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory derivative that has been shown to behave as a γ-secretase modulator in vitro and to inhibit plaque deposition and to reverse memory deficit in vivo in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, the effects of a long-term (13-month) treatment with CHF5074 on indicators of brain functionality and neurodegeneration in transgenic AD mice (Tg2576) have been assessed and compared with those induced by a prototypical γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT).Results: To this end, plaque-free, 6-month-old Tg2576 mice and wild-type littermates were fed with a diet containing CHF5074 (125 and 375 ppm/day), DAPT (375 ppm/day) or vehicle for 13 months. The measured indicators included object recognition memory, amyloid burden, brain oligomeric and plasma Aβ levels, intraneuronal Aβ, dendritic spine density/morphology, neuronal cyclin A positivity and activated microglia. Tg2576 mice fed with standard diet displayed an impairment of recognition memory. This deficit was completely reverted by the higher dose of CHF5074, while no effects were observed in DAPT-treated mice. Similarly, amyloid plaque burden, microglia activation and aberrant cell cycle events were significantly affected by CHF5074, but not DAPT, treatment. Both CHF5074 and DAPT reduced intraneuronal Aβ content, also increasing Aβ40 and Aβ42 plasma levels.Conclusions: This comparative analysis revealed a profoundly diverse range of clinically relevant effects differentiating the multifunctional anti-inflammatory derivative CHF5074 from the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT and highlighted unique mechanisms and potential targets that may be crucial for neuroprotection in mouse models of AD. © 2013 Sivilia et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Porrini V.,University of Brescia | Porrini V.,IRCCS San Camillo Hospital | Lanzillotta A.,University of Brescia | Branca C.,University of Brescia | And 10 more authors.
Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Activation of microglia associated with neuroinflammation and loss of phagocytic activity is considered to play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). CHF5074 (CSP-1103) has been shown to improve cognition and reduce brain inflammation in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). CHF5074 was also found to reverse impairments in recognition memory and improve hippocampal long-term potentiation when administered to plaque-free Tg2576 mice (5-month-old) for 4weeks. Though, no investigation has focused on the consequence of CHF5074 treatment on microglia polarization yet. In this study we evaluated the effect of CHF5074 administration (375ppm in the diet) to 5-month-old Tg2576 mice on the expression of pro-inflammatory (M1) genes, Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) and inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS), and anti-inflammatory/phagocytic (M2) markers Mannose Receptor type C 1 (MRC1/CD206), Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) and Chitinase 3-like 3 (Ym1). No changes of pro-inflammatory gene transcription but a reduced expression of MRC1/CD206, TREM2 and Ym1 were detected in the hippocampus of young Tg2576 mice receiving normal diet, when compared to wild-type littermates. CHF5074 did not affect the pro-inflammatory transcription but significantly increased the expression of MRC1/CD206 and Ym1. CHF5074 effects appeared to be hippocampus-specific, as the M2 transcripts were only slightly modified in the cerebral cortex. In primary cultures of mouse astrocyte-microglia, CHF5074 totally suppressed the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS induced by 10μM β-amyloid1-42 (Aβ42). Moreover, CHF5074 significantly increased the expression of anti-inflammatory/phagocytic markers MRC1/CD206 and TREM2, reduced by the Aβ42 application alone. The effect of CHF5074 was not reproduced by ibuprofen (3μM or 500μM) or R-flurbiprofen (3μM or 100μM), as both compounds limited the pro-inflammatory gene expression but did not modify the anti-inflammatory/phagocytic transcription. These data show that CHF5074 specifically drives the expression of microglia M2 markers either in young Tg2576 hippocampus or in primary astrocyte-microglia cultures, suggesting its potential therapeutic efficacy as microglial modulator in the early phase of AD. © 2014 IBRO.

Calza L.,University of Bologna | Calza L.,IRET Foundation | Giuliani A.,University of Bologna | Mangano C.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

The drug discovery for disease-modifying agents in Alzheimer disease (AD) is facing a failure of clinical trials with drugs based on two driving hypotheses, i.e. the cholinergic and amyloidogenic hypotheses. In this article we recapitulate the main aspects of AD pathology, focusing on possible mechanisms for synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and inflammation. We then present the pharmacological and neurobiological profile of a novel compound (CHF5074) showing both anti-inflammatory and gamma-secretase modulatory activities, discussing the possible time-window for effective treatment in an AD transgenic mouse model. Finally, the concept of cognitive reserve is introduced as possible target for preventive therapies. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Fernandez M.,University of Bologna | Baldassarro V.A.,University of Bologna | Sivilia S.,University of Bologna | Giardino L.,University of Bologna | And 3 more authors.
GLIA | Year: 2016

Differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes is severely impaired by inflammatory cytokines and this could lead to remyelination failure in inflammatory/demyelinating diseases. Due to the role of thyroid hormone in the maturation of OPCs and developmental myelination, in this study we investigated (i) the possible occurrence of dysregulation of thyroid hormone signaling in the CNS tissue during experimental neuroinflammation; (ii) the possible impact of inflammatory cytokines on thyroid hormone signaling and OPCs differentiation in vitro. The disease model is the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in female Dark-Agouti rats, whereas in vitro experiments were carried out in OPCs derived from neural stem cells. The main results are the following: (i) a strong upregulation of cytokine mRNA expression level was found in the spinal cord during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; (ii) thyroid hormone signaling in the spinal cord (thyroid hormone receptors; deiodinase; thyroid hormone membrane transporter) is substantially downregulated, due to the upregulation of the thyroid hormone inactivating enzyme deiodinase 3 and the downregulation of thyroid hormone receptors, as investigated at mRNA expression level; (iii) when exposed to inflammatory cytokines, deiodinase 3 is upregulated in OPCs as well, and OPCs differentiation is blocked; (iv) deiodinase 3 inhibition by iopanoic acid recovers OPCs differentiation in the presence on inflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that cellular hypothyroidism occurs during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, possibly impacting on thyroid hormone-dependent cellular processes, including maturation of OPCs into myelinating oligodendrocytes. GLIA 2016;64:1573–1589. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Borjini N.,Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A | Borjini N.,University of Bologna | Borjini N.,IRET Foundation | Fernandez M.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neuroinflammation | Year: 2016

Background: Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used experimental animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS) that has been used so far to study the acute and remission-relapsing phases of the disease. Despite the vast literature on neuroinflammation onset and progression in EAE, important questions are still open regarding in particular the early asymptomatic phase between immunization and clinical onset. Methods: In this study, we performed a time-course investigation of neuroinflammation and demyelination biomarkers in the spinal cord (SC), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood in EAE induced in dark agouti (DA) female rats compared to the controls and adjuvant-injected rats, using high-throughput technologies for gene expression and protein assays and focusing on the time-course between immunization, clinical onset (1, 5, 8 days post-immunization (DPI)), and progression (11 and 18 DPI). The expression profile of 84 genes related to T cell activation/signaling, adaptive immunity, cytokine/chemokine inflammation, demyelination, and cellular stress were analyzed in the tissue; 24 cytokines were measured in the CSF and plasma. Results: The macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) was the first up-regulated protein as far as 1 DPI, not only in blood but also in CSF and SC. A treatment with GW2580, a selective CSF1R inhibitor, slowed the disease progression, significantly reduced the severity, and prevented the relapse phase. Moreover, both pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-5, IL-10, VEGF) were up-regulated starting from 8 DPI. Myelin genes were down-regulated starting from 8 DPI, especially MAL, MBP, and PMP22 while an opposite expression profile was observed for inflammation-related genes, such as CXCL11 and CXCL10. Conclusions: This early cytokine and chemokine regulation indicates that novel biomarkers and therapeutic options could be explored in the asymptomatic phase of EAE. Overall, our findings provide clear evidence that CSF1R signaling regulates inflammation in EAE, supporting therapeutic targeting of CSF1R in MS. © 2016 The Author(s).

PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Ferrara and IRET Foundation
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurochemistry | Year: 2016

In this study, the functional role of individual striatal receptors for adenosine (A2AR), dopamine (D2R), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5R in regulating rat basal ganglia activity was characterized invivo using dual-probe microdialysis in freely moving rats. In particular, intrastriatal perfusion with the D2R agonist quinpirole (10M, 60min) decreased ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, whereas intrastriatal CGS21680 (A2AR agonist; 1M, 60min) was ineffective on either pallidal GABA and glutamate levels or the quinpirole-induced effects. Intrastriatal perfusion with the mGlu5R agonist (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (600M, 60min), by itself ineffective on pallidal GABA and glutamate levels, partially counteracted the effects of quinpirole. When combined with CGS21680 (1M, 60min), (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; 600M, 60min) fully counteracted the quinpirole (10M, 60min)-induced reduction in ipsilateral pallidal GABA and glutamate levels. These effects were fully counteracted by local perfusion with the mGlu5R antagonist MPEP (300M) or the A2AR antagonist ZM 241385 (100 nM). These results suggest that A2ARs and mGlu5Rs interact synergistically in modulating the D2R-mediated control of striatopallidal GABA neurons. Using dual-probe microdialysis, we characterized the functional role of striatal adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) interactions in regulating rat basal ganglia activity. The results suggest the possible usefulness of using an A2AR antagonist and mGluR5 antagonist combination in the treatment of Parkinsons disease to increase the inhibitory D2 signaling on striatopallidal GABA neurons.

Baratto L.,La Colletta Bioengineering Center | Calza L.,IRET Foundation | Calza L.,University of Bologna | Capra R.,La Colletta Bioengineering Center | And 5 more authors.
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2011

A growing number of laboratory and clinical studies over the past 10 years have shown that low-level laser stimulation (633 or 670 nm) at extremely low power densities (about 0.15 mW/cm2), when administered through a particular emission mode, is capable of eliciting significant biological effects. Studies on cell cultures and animal models as well as clinical trials give support to a novel therapeutic modality, which may be referred to as ultra low level laser therapy (ULLLT). In cultured neural cells, pulsed irradiation (670 nm, 0.45 mJ/cm2) has shown to stimulate NGF-induced neurite elongation and to protect cells against oxidative stress. In rats, anti-edema and antihyperalgesia effects following ULLL irradiation were found. Clinical studies have reported beneficial effects (also revealed through sonography) in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The present paper reviews the existing experimental evidence available on ULLLT. Furthermore, the puzzling issue of the biophysical mechanisms that lie at the basis of the method is explored and some hypotheses are proposed. Besides presenting the state-ofthe-art about this novel photobiostimulation therapy, the present paper aims to open up an interdisciplinary discussion and stimulate new research on this subject. © Springer-Verlag London Ltd 2010.

Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Foundation | Rinaldi S.,Rinaldi Fontani Institute | Calza L.,IRET Foundation | Calza L.,University of Bologna | And 6 more authors.
Frontiers in Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Global research in the field of pharmacology has not yet found effective drugs to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, alternative therapeutic strategies are under investigation, such as neurostimulation by physical means. Radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) is one of these technologies and has, until now, been used in clinical studies on several psychiatric and neurological disorders with encouraging results in the absence of side effects. Moreover, studies at the cellular level have shown that REAC technology, with the appropriate protocols, is able to induce neuronal differentiation both in murine embryonic cells and in human adult differentiated cells. Other studies have shown that REAC technology is able to positively influence senescence processes. Studies conducted on AD patients and in transgenic mouse models have shown promising results, suggesting REAC could be a useful therapy for certain components of AD. © 2015 Rinaldi, Calzà, Giardino, Biella, Zippo and Fontani.

Calza L.,University of Bologna | Calza L.,IRET Foundation | Fernandez M.,University of Bologna | Giardino L.,University of Bologna | Giardino L.,IRET Foundation
Comprehensive Physiology | Year: 2015

The role of thyroid hormone on brain development is dramatically illustrated by "cretinism," a severe mental retardation due to iodine deficiency and maternal hypothyroidism during gestation. In the last decades, the molecular bases of the cellular action of thyroid hormone in the nervous tissue have been at least partially elucidated, and the emerged picture is much more complex than expected. In this article, the main mechanisms determining thyroid hormone availability, nuclear and membrane receptor occupancy and downstream action, gene expression, and nongenomic mechanism are reviewed, focusing on myelination and myelin turnover. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

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