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Gortazar C.,IREC Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Ferroglio E.,University of Turin | Lutton C.E.,IREC Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Lutton C.E.,University of York | Acevedo P.,University of Malaga
Wildlife Research | Year: 2010

Diseases pose a major direct or indirect threat to the conservation of endangered species, and can be a source of conflict among the stakeholders in conservation efforts. We aim to provide examples of disease-related conflicts in conservation, and information that can be used to identify means to reduce existing conflicts and avoid potential new ones. After introducing how diseases can affect conservation efforts, we have provided examples of different types of disease-related conflicts, including (1) those related to the movements of hosts, vectors and pathogens, (2) those linked to cats and dogs living in contact with wild carnivores, (3) those related to ungulate overabundance and (4) those related to carrion and hunting remains. We then discuss the management options available to mitigate these situations and resolve the conflicts surrounding them. Disease-related conflicts can affect conservation in several different ways. Whereas it is clear that diseases must be considered in any recovery plan for endangered species, as well as for sympatric and related abundant species such as relevant prey, it is also important to foresee and mitigate any eventual disease-related conflicts. Where conflicts have arisen, identifying the cultural carrying capacity for a disease or disease host species will help identify management strategies. It is important to quantify the risks for stakeholders and educate them about possible solutions. Multidisciplinary research teams that communicate their work to stakeholders should help resolve conflicts. Management options will not only depend on the status of the endangered host species and the epidemiology of the diseases considered, but also on the levels of existing conflict. Conservation strategies affected by diseases should explicitly include efforts to educate and inform all stakeholders as required throughout the process, and tackle any conflicts that arise. © CSIRO 2010.

Cowie C.E.,University of York | Cowie C.E.,IREC Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Beck B.B.,IREC Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | Gortazar C.,IREC Wildlife Research Institute CSIC UCLM JCCM | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2014

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial disease of livestock and wildlife, which has major social and economic costs. In Spain, cattle test-and-slaughter schemes have dramatically reduced TB levels, but a wildlife reservoir of the disease is thought to be preventing total eradication. We aim to identify the risk factors for the presence of TB in cattle in Spain. In this case-control study, we combined a farmer-based questionnaire and participatory mapping with government records in Almodovar, Spain. Data were collected from a mixture of TB-free and TB-infected farms, yielding a total sample of 73 farms. Generalised linear modelling and information theory were used to identify the risk factors strongly associated with TB, and farmers were also asked their opinions on TB and wildlife management. The risk factors most strongly associated with TB on a farm were the presence of wildlife, the number of streams per hectare and feeding volume foods (e.g. hay) on the ground. Farmers' opinions about TB were influenced by their experience of the disease and their interactions with wildlife. The results highlight the complexities of managing TB, and demonstrate the need for a system-level understanding of the inter-relationships among epidemiological, ecological, environmental, social and political risk factors. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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