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PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, IREC Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos CSIC UCLM JCLM and University of San Pablo - CEU
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016

Hepatitis E is a viral zoonosis that affects multiple hosts. The complete dynamics of infection in wildlife are still unknown, but the previous fact facilitates the maintenance and circulation of the virus, posing a risk to human health in the case of meat consumption from susceptible animals. In Spain, it has been shown how domestic pigs, cattle and wildlife (i.e. wild boar and red deer) clearly interact in hunting farms, generating a complex epidemiological situation in terms of interspecies pathogen transmission. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to (i) evaluate the circulation of the virus in geographically close domestic (Iberian pigs) and wild animals (wild boar and deer) living in hunting areas from central Spain over an 8-year period (2003-2010) and (ii) to determine whether HEV could be used as a marker of domestic-wildlife contact. For these purposes, a longitudinal analysis of Iberian pig, wild boar and red deer samples (n=287) through virological and serological tests was conducted to shed light upon the circulation events of HEV. Regarding HEV RNA detection by real-time RT-PCR, 10.12% samples (95% CI: 5.44-14.8) from wild boar and 16.05% samples (95% CI: 8.06-24.04) from red deer were positive. As for the Iberian pigs, none of the 48 samples was positive for HEV RNA detection. In the serological analysis, 43.75% (95% CI: 29.75-57.75) from Iberian pig, 57.40% (95% CI: 48.10-66.70) from wild boar and 12.85% (95% CI: 5.01-20.69) samples from red deer presented anti-HEV antibodies. Positive samples were distributed among all study years (2003-2010). These results depict the urgent need to improve the inspection and surveillance of these species and their products. In the case of HEV, it is clear that the stable and constant presence of the virus in wildlife and its contact with Iberian pigs pose a risk for human health as they are all destined for human consumption.

Rodriguez-Prieto V.,Complutense University of Madrid | Kukielka D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez-Lopez B.,Complutense University of Madrid | Martinez-Lopez B.,IREC Institute Investigacion en Recursos Cinegeticos CSIC UCLM JCLM | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2013

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a swine infectious disease causing major economic problems on the intensive pig industry. This virus has been reported worldwide in domestic pigs and there is evidence of PRRS virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boar (Sus scrofa). Nonetheless, the epidemiological role of wild boar and extensively kept domestic pigs remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of PRRS in wild boar and Iberian pigs in the dehesa ecosystem of the Castile-La Mancha region of Spain, which boasts one of the most important free-roaming porcine livestock and hunting industries in the country. Using geo-spatial analysis of literature data, we first explored the relationship between domestic pig density and PRRS occurrence in wild boar in Europe. Results revealed that PRRS occurrence in wild boar may be influenced, albeit not significantly, by domestic pig density. Next, we analyzed sera from 294 wild boar and 80 Iberian pigs by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PRRSV antibodies. The sera and 27 wild boar tissue samples were analyzed by two real-time RT-PCR assays, targeting the most conserved genes of the PRRSV genome, ORF1 and ORF7. Seven wild boar (2.4 %) and one Iberian pig (1.3 %) were seropositive, while none of the animals tested positive for PRRSV by RT-PCR. Our results confirm the limited spread of PRRSV in free-roaming Iberian pigs and wild boar living in mutual contact. Further studies would be necessary to address whether this low seroprevalence found in these animals reflects transmission from intensively kept pigs or the independent circulation of specific strains in free-roaming pigs. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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