IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM

Ciudad Real, Spain

IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM

Ciudad Real, Spain
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Oleaga A.,Sociedad de Servicios del Principado de Asturias S.A. | Gortazar C.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM
European Journal of Wildlife Research | Year: 2012

This study collects pathological information concerning sarcoptic mange in sympatric red deer, roe deer, chamois, wolf and red fox from Northern Spain, and discusses reported variations in the response from the different species against Sarcoptes scabiei. Wolf is the only studied species which shows prevalence of the hypersensitivity (alopecic) response to the detriment of the hyperkeratotic form, usually observed in ungulates and fox. The present work shows the use of immunohistochemistry as a valuable tool for the study and diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in those species whose immune response or stage of infestation limits the number of detectable mites, not an unusual difficulty faced when working with sarcoptic mange in wildlife species. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Munoz Mendoza M.,Servicio de Sanidad Animal | Juan L.D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Ocampo A.,Area Veterinaria de Lalin | Mourelo J.,Servicio de Sanidad Animal | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Tuberculosis was diagnosed in three flocks of sheep in Galicia, Spain, in 2009 and 2010. Two flocks were infected with Mycobacterium bovis and one flock was infected with Mycobacterium caprae. Infection was confirmed by the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, bacteriology, molecular analysis and histopathology. Sheep have the potential to act as a reservoir for tuberculosis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Rodriguez O.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Gonzalez-Quiros P.,BIOGESTIoN | Merediz I.,Travesia del hospital 96 | Sevilla I.A.,Instituto Vasco Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario | And 8 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

The prevalence, distribution and pathology related to infection with Mycobacterium bovis and other mycobacteria were determined in trapped (n= 36) and road-killed (n= 121) badgers in Spain from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of M. bovis based on bacteriological culture from road-killed badgers was 8/121 (6.6%) and from trapped badgers was 0/36 (0%). Tuberculosis/. M. bovis infection was evident in 15/121 (12.4%) road-killed badgers when bacteriology and histopathology were combined. Mycobacterium avium complex was isolated by culture from the tracheal aspirate of 1/36 (2.8%) trapped badgers and from tissue pools from 8/121 (6.6%) road-killed badgers. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Cabal A.,Complutense University of Madrid | Gomez-Barrero S.,Complutense University of Madrid | Porrero C.,Complutense University of Madrid | Barcena C.,University of Zaragoza | And 5 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

The distribution of virulence factors (VFs) typical of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles were assessed in 780 isolates from healthy pigs, broilers, and cattle from Spain. VF distribution was broader than expected, although at low prevalence for most genes, with AMR being linked mainly to host species. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.


Jaroso R.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Vicente J.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Fernandez-de-Mera I.G.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Fernandez-de-Mera I.G.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2010

Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) are able to maintain bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in the wild and are most probably able to transmit the disease to other species, thus acting as a true wildlife reservoir. Translocation of wild boar is a common practice in European countries. Therefore, identifying effective tools for bTB diagnosis in living wild boar is crucial for the implementation of control measures. We describe for the first time the sex and origin related differences in the skin-test response to mycobacterial antigens (bPPD and aPPD) and to a non-mycobacterial antigen (PHA, a plant derived mitogen) in wild and farmed wild boar, and used a small sample of known M. bovis infected wild boar to establish whether skin-testing is an option for bTB diagnosis in living wild boar. The highest skinfold increase response was detected at the PHA injection site, evidencing that the PHA test could be useful in monitoring cell mediated immunity (CMI) in wild boar populations. A clear age-increasing trend of the PHA response indicated that age should be taken into account when measuring CMI in wild boar. Origin related differences in the response against mycobacterial antigens could reflect differential exposure to mycobacterial antigens. Skin testing in BCG immunized wild boar showed low sensitivity (43-57%), while the sensitivity was good in the culture positive controls (75-100%), depending on the reading criterion. Specificity improved when the criterion was a response to bPPD larger than 2. mm and bPPD response larger than aPPD response (77%). Although a limited sample, our results indicated the potential of skin test as a bTB diagnostic tool in Eurasian wild boar. However, handling of wild boar is dangerous, specificity is low, and more effort is needed in order to define the sensitivity of this technique. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Martinez-Padilla J.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Mougeot F.,EEZA CSIC | Garcia J.T.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Arroyo B.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Bortolotti G.R.,University of Saskatchewan
Journal of Raptor Research | Year: 2013

Most of our understanding of the function of colored traits displayed by birds and the mechanisms that produce or maintain them comes from studies on adults. However, colored traits are often displayed by nestlings from a young age, and these traits may influence parent-offspring interactions or sibling competition. The mechanisms that may mediate the expression of those traits during growth are still fairly unknown in raptors. In this study, we examined a possible mediating effect of corticosterone levels on the expression of carotenoid-pigmented traits in nestlings of Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo), specifically the yellow-orange coloration of their cere and legs. We assayed corticosterone levels deposited in feathers, which can provide a reliable and integrated index of stress responses during growth. Carotenoids can be used to color integuments, or diverted to other physiological processes involved in self-maintenance. We hypothesized that corticosterone levels mediate how carotenoids can be diverted to functions other than coloration. We show that carotenoid and corticosterone levels were positively associated, perhaps because of a higher metabolic activity in more-stressed nestlings. Corticosterone levels were negatively correlated with the coloration of cere and legs in females only. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis that corticosterone may influence how carotenoid pigments are allocated for needs other than coloration, although in a sex-specific manner. We encourage further studies exploring how individuals cope with and respond to stressful conditions, in order to better understand the complex interactions between corticosterone, carotenoids, and coloration during nestling growth. © The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.


Boadella M.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Gortazar C.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background: Monitoring wildlife diseases is needed to identify changes in disease occurrence. Wildlife blood samples are valuable for this purpose but are often gathered haemolysed. To maximise information, sera often go through repeated analysis and freeze-thaw cycles. Herein, we used samples of clean and haemolysed Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum stored at -20°C and thawed up to five times to study the effects of both treatments on the outcome of a commercial ELISA test for the detection of antibodies against Suid Herpesvirus 1 (ADV). Results: The estimated prevalence of antibodies against ADV was 50-53% for clean and haemolysed sera. Hence, haemolysis did not reduce the mean observed serum antibody prevalence. However, 10 samples changed their classification after repeated freeze-thawing. This included 3 (15%) of the clean sera and 7 (41%) of the haemolysed sera. Conclusions: We recommend (1) establishing more restrictive cut-off values when testing wildlife sera, (2) recording serum quality prior to sample banking, (3) recording the number of freezing-thawing cycles and (4) store sera in various aliquots to reduce repeated usage. For instance, sera with more than 3 freeze-thaw cycles and a haemolysis of over 3 on a scale of 4 should better be discarded for serum antibody monitoring. Even clean (almost not haemolysed) sera should not go through more than 5 freeze-thaw cycles. © 2011 Boadella et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Boadella M.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Diez-Delgado I.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Gutierrez-Guzman A.V.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Hofle U.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM | Gortazar C.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2012

As a response to the need for improved and cost-efficient West Nile virus (WNV) and other flavivirus surveillance tools, we tested 887 juvenile free-living red deer, 742 free-living juvenile wild boar, and 327 farmed deer, to detect temporal variability in exposure to these viruses. Thirty of 742 wild boar samples (4%; 95% CI 2.8,5.7) yielded a positive ELISA result. Antibody-positive individuals had been sampled between 2003 and 2011 in localities from central and southern Spain. No wild boar from the northern half of Spain (n=120) tested positive. Regarding juvenile wild red deer, only two out of 887 samples yielded a positive ELISA result (0.2%; 95% CI 0.1,0.8). These two samples came from the same site and sampling year. The likelihood of detecting contact with WNV or cross-reacting flaviviruses was 18 times higher among juvenile wild boar than among juvenile red deer. ELISA positivity among farmed deer increased 10-fold after local flavivirus outbreaks recorded in the summer and autumn of 2010. This survey demonstrated the potential usefulness of juvenile wild ungulates, particularly wild boar, as suitable flavivirus sentinels in southwestern Europe, and that systematic serum banking of samples from hunter-harvested wildlife or from individual farmed ungulates provides valuable material for retrospective epidemiological surveys and future disease monitoring. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Molla M.I.,Zoobotanico | Quevedo M.A.,Zoobotanico | Castro F.,IREC CSIC UCLM JCCM
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science | Year: 2011

Environmental enrichment is an improvement in the biological functioning of nonhuman animals in captivity resulting from modifications to their environment; however, specifying appropriate and practical measures of enrichment is problematic. This study analyzes the behavior of 4 bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Jerez Zoo before and after the application of a global program of environmental enrichment that included (a) changes in the size and complexity of their installations, (b) the introduction of new objects into compounds, (c) changes in diet, and (d) modifications in the grouping of animals. A factorial correspondence analysis showed a highly significant relationship among individual animals, behavior, and experimental design. Behaviors such as locomotion, repeated pacing, vigilance, and grooming more often occurred before enrichment, whereas exploratory and food behaviors were more often associated with the enrichment phase. After the implementation of the enrichment program, the bobcats bred successfully for the first time since their arrival in the zoo. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Balseiro A.,SERIDA | Merediz I.,Travesia del Hospital 96 | Sevilla I.A.,Instituto Vasco Of Investigacion Y Desarrollo Agrario | Garcia-Castro C.,Travesia del Hospital 96 | And 3 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2011

There are few reports of infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria in badgers. In this study archive data relating to the isolation of MAC organisms from badgers in the UK is presented, and information derived from recent cases of such infection in Spain is used to illustrate the associated pathology and to characterise strain types. Tissue samples were cultured for mycobacteria and, in the case of Spanish badgers, were examined both histopathologically and using immunohistochemistry, and DNA typing of M. avium isolates was also carried out. A total of 5 (7.35%) and 281 (0.51%) isolates of M. avium spp. were recovered from badgers from the studies in Spain and the UK, respectively. DNA typing of the isolates from Spain identified the sub-species M. avium hominissuis and M. avium avium. These findings provide new information on the prevalence of MAC organisms in badgers in the UK and Spain. The extent to which infected badgers may be involved in the epidemiology of M. avium in other wild or domestic hosts remains unknown. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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