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La Paz, Bolivia

Goix S.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Point D.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Oliva P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Polve M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 6 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2011

The Bolivian Altiplano (Highlands) region is subject to intense mining, tailing and smelting activities since centuries because of the presence of large and unique polymetallic ore deposits (Ag, Au, Cu, Pb, Sn, Sb, Zn). A large scale PM 10, PM 2.5 aerosol monitoring survey was conducted during the dry season in one of the largest mining cities of this region (Oruro, 200,000 inhabitants). Aerosol fractions, source distribution and transport were investigated for 23 elements at approximately 1km 2 scale resolution, and compared to children exposure data obtained within the same geographical space. As, Cd, Pb, Sb, W and Zn in aerosols are present at relatively high concentrations when compared to studies from other mining regions. Arsenic exceeds the European council PM 10 guide value (6ng/m 3) for 90% of the samples, topping 200ng/m 3. Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Sb are present at significantly higher levels in the district located in the vicinity of the smelter zone. At the city level, principal component analysis combined with the mapping of factor scores allowed the identification and deconvolution of four individual sources: i) a natural magmatic source (Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb and U) originating from soil dust, resuspended by the traffic activity; ii) a natural sedimentary source (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Th) resulting from the suspension of evaporative salt deposits located South; iii) an anthropogenic source specifically enriched in mined elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn) mainly in the smelting district of the city; and iv) a Ni-Cr source homogenously distributed between the different city districts. Enrichment factors for As, Cd and Sb clearly show the impact of smelting activities, particularly in the finest PM 2.5 fraction. Comparison to children's hair metal contents collected in five schools from different districts shows a direct exposure to smelting activity fingerprinted by a unique trace elements pattern (Ag, As, Cu, Pb, Sb). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source


Goix S.,Toulouse University Midi-Pyrenees | Resongles E.,Toulouse University Midi-Pyrenees | Point D.,Toulouse University Midi-Pyrenees | Oliva P.,Toulouse University Midi-Pyrenees | And 7 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Monitoring atmospheric trace elements (TE) levels and tracing their source origin is essential for exposure assessment and human health studies. Epiphytic Tillandsia capillaris plants were used as bioaccumulator of TE in a complex polymetallic mining/smelting urban context (Oruro, Bolivia). Specimens collected from a pristine reference site were transplanted at a high spatial resolution (~1sample/km2) throughout the urban area. About twenty-seven elements were measured after a 4-month exposure, also providing new information values for reference material BCR482. Statistical power analysis for this biomonitoring mapping approach against classical aerosols surveys performed on the same site showed the better aptitude of T.Capillaris to detect geographical trend, and to deconvolute multiple contamination sources using geostatistical principal component analysis. Transplanted specimens in the vicinity of the mining and smelting areas were characterized by extreme TE accumulation (Sn>Ag>Sb>Pb>Cd>As>W>Cu>Zn). Three contamination sources were identified: mining (Ag, Pb, Sb), smelting (As, Sn) and road traffic (Zn) emissions, confirming results of previous aerosol survey. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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