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Ruiz-Castell M.,University Pompeu Fabra | Ruiz-Castell M.,Ird Bolivie Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | Carsin A.-E.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Carsin A.-E.,Municipal Institute of Medical Research IMIM Hospital Del Mar | And 8 more authors.
American Journal of Human Biology | Year: 2013

Objectives: This study aims to (1) follow up and characterize infant growth patterns during the first year of life in Bolivia, and (2) determine whether there exists an association between weight gain and cognitive development in children living near contaminated mining industries. Methods: Data on 175 children participating to the ToxBol (Toxicity in Bolivia) birth cohort were analyzed. Rapid-growth during the first 6 months was defined as a change in weight z-score > 0.67 while slow-growth was defined as a weight z-score change of < -0.67. Neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 10.5-12.5 months of age. Mixed models were used to examine the association between cognitive development and weight gain. Results: Rapid growers weighed less at birth (P < 0.01). However, they revealed a higher body mass index at 12 months of age (0.70 ± 0.73, P < 0.01). After adjustment for confounding, rapid growth was not associated with cognitive development (coef = 0.49, 95% confidence interval = -4.10, 5.08). Conclusions: In this Bolivian cohort, children born smaller were more likely to grow/develop faster and attain greater weight and length. Their cognitive development was not affected by their growth patterns. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Ruiz-Castell M.,Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Ruiz-Castell M.,Municipal Institute of Medical Research IMIM Hospital Del Mar | Ruiz-Castell M.,University Pompeu Fabra | Ruiz-Castell M.,Ird Bolivie Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement | And 17 more authors.
Environmental Research | Year: 2012

This study evaluates the neurodevelopment of children living near contaminated mining industries during their first year of life. Participants from the city of Oruro (Bolivia) were prospectively recruited during pregnancy. Follow-up occurred between May 2007 and November 2009. Information about the socioeconomic status and medical history of the pregnant women were collected using questionnaires. Neurodevelopment was evaluated for 246 children using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) at 10.5-12.5 months of age. Exposure to trace elements (Pb, As, Cd, Sb, Cs, Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Rb, and Sr) during prenatal life was evaluated by testing maternal blood concentrations before delivery. Almost all measured levels were lower than the control limits. The blood lead concentration of pregnant women was low, considering the contaminated environmental context. The geometric mean was 1.76 μg/dL (95% CI: 1.68-1.84), a level comparable with those observed in non-contaminated areas. The only element found to be relatively elevated was antimony, with a geometric mean of 1.03 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.96-1.11). Our results suggest that women from this mining area were not highly exposed. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) did not reveal mental or psychomotor abnormalities. Surprisingly, at the observed low levels, lead was positively associated with the children's BSID performance. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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