Vezzani A.,IRCSS |
Lang B.,John Radcliffe Hospital |
Aronica E.,University of Amsterdam
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine | Year: 2016
This review reports the available evidence on the activation of the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system and the related inflammatory processes in epileptic disorders and the putative pathogenic role of inflammatory processes developing in the brain, as indicated by evidence from experimental and clinical research. Indeed, there is increasing knowledge supporting a role of specific inflammatory mediators and immune cells in the generation and recurrence of epileptic seizures, as well as in the associated neuropathology and comorbidities. Major challenges in this field remain: a better understanding of the key inflammatory pathogenic pathways activated in chronic epilepsyand during epileptogenesis, and how to counteract them efficiently without altering the homeostatic tissue repair function of inflammation. The relevance of this information for developing novel therapies will be highlighted. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.
Marca G.D.,Catholic University |
Leoni C.,Catholic University |
Dittoni S.,Catholic University |
Battaglia D.,Catholic University |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2011
Costello syndrome is a congenital disorder because of HRAS gene mutation, frequently associated with neurologic impairment and sleep disorders. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sleep EEG, and particularly the sleep spindles, in a population of patients with Costello syndrome and to compare them with those characterizing unaffected subjects. Eleven subjects (5 men and 6 women) with Costello syndrome were included in the study; age ranged between 18 months and 31 years (mean, 9.6 ± 9.4 years). The diagnosis was posed on the basis of established clinical criteria and confirmed molecularly. Sleep EEG was studied by means of full-night, laboratory-based video-polysomnography, performed overnight, during hospitalization. Sleep activity was quantified by means of power spectral analysis. Patients heterozygous for an HRAS mutation exhibited increased EEG power in 12-to 15-Hz activity band compared with age-matched control subjects. In conclusion, the authors observed a consistent increase in the amplitude of cortical sleep spindles in all our subjects with an HRAS mutation. These "giant" spindles were not associated with any evidence of structural damage of the cortex or the thalami and should be considered as phenotypic feature of sleep EEG activity in Costello syndrome because of HRAS mutation. Copyright © 2011 by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society.
Corona G.,Critics Territorial Unit of Oncology and Palliative Care |
Dinardo F.,COOPERATIVES Auxilium |
Nutritional Therapy and Metabolism | Year: 2011
One of the issues noted during home palliative treatments is the staggering amount of patients with poor venous access due to the "butchered" state of their arms caused by previous intravenous therapies or attempts at therapies. The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the feasibility of home placement of peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters in aged bedridden patients who cannot be taken to hospital. The patients were chosen on the basis of a codified procedure which took into account their clinical condition (such as mobility level and Karnofsky index) as well as the hygienic conditions of their homes. In a three-year period, 150 successful insertions were performed at home in patients aged over 80 (97 women and 53 men) affected by various diseases and in need of continuous infusion therapy, parenteral nutrition, or blood transfusions. One hundred eleven patients had peripherally inserted central catheters and 39 midline catheters. The basilic vein was used in 99 cases. Cancer was the most frequent underlying condition (63 patients) followed by Alzheimer disease (37 patients), whereas the need for infusion therapy was the most frequent indication (129 patients). The mean duration was 41 days (50 for peripherally inserted central catheters and 15 for midline catheters). Death was the most frequent reason for catheter removal, followed by involuntary removal. Twelve complications occurred, with thrombosis being the most frequent, followed by infections and catheter malfunctioning. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that age does not affect the outcome of home placement of peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters. Moreover, the home is the ideal place to carry out peripherally inserted central catheter and midline insertion because undesirable hospitalization is avoided. Finally, these devices are able to improve quality of life in patients aged over 80, although this specific issue needs further investigation. The ratio between the use of peripherally inserted central catheters and/or midlines versus the use of traditional peripheral cannulas for venous access was 1:14 in the authors' personal series (6106 days of catheters in situ). This should prompt more use of peripherally inserted central catheters and midline catheters, given the more favorable cost-effectiveness ratio. © 2011 SINPE-GASAPE.
Romano M.R.,University of Bari |
Biagioni F.,IRCSS |
Carrizzo A.,IRCSS |
Lorusso M.,Ecclesiastical Authority Regional General Hospital Miulli |
And 14 more authors.
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2014
The study was designed to investigate the effects of a new ophthalmic solution containing 0.05% vitamin B12 0.05% on corneal nerve regeneration in rats after corneal injury. Eyes of anesthetized male Wistar rats were subjected to corneal injury by removing the corneal epithelium with corneal brush (Algerbrush). After the epithelial debridement, the right eye of each animal received the instillation of one drop of the ophthalmic solution containing vitamin B12 0.05% plus taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% four time per day for 10 or 30 days. Left eyes were used as control and treated with solution containing taurine 0.5% and sodium hyaluronate 0.5% alone following the same regimen. Fluorescein staining by slit-lamp and morphological analysis was used to determine corneal wound healing. Immunohistochemistry, immunoblot and confocal microscopy were used to examine corneal re-innervation. Slit-lamp and histological analyses showed that re-epithelization of the corneas was accelerated in rats treated with vitamin B12. A clear-cut difference between the two groups of rats was seen after 10 days of treatment, whereas a near-to-complete re-epithelization was observed in both groups at 30 days. Vitamin B12 treatment had also a remarkable effect on corneal re-innervation, as shown by substantial increased in the expression of neurofilament 160 and β-III tubulin at both 10 and 30 days. The presence of SV2A-positive nerve endings suggests the presence of synapse-like specialized structures in corneal epithelium of the eye treated with vitamin B12. Our findings suggest that vitamin B12 treatment represents a powerful strategy to accelerate not only re-epithelization but also corneal re-innervation after mechanical injury. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Cazzola M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata |
Calzetta L.,IRCSS |
Rogliani P.,University of Rome Tor Vergata |
Lauro D.,University of Rome Tor Vergata |
And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology | Year: 2012
Glucose moves into airway secretions after a glucose load. Therefore people with diabetes or hyperglycemia spend a significant proportion of each day with glucose in their airways secretions. This study investigated the effects of glucose on isolated human airways and on cultured airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. Human isolated bronchi were stimulated with acetylcholine, histamine, and transmural stimulation and treated with the selective ROCK inhibitors Y27632 and SB772077B under high-glucose conditions. The effect of high glucose concentrations on intracellular calcium flux and the phosphorylation of MYPT1 in ASM cells was also investigated. High (44 mM for 6 h) glucose, but not mannitol, concentrations led to an enhanced responsiveness of ASM to contractile agents. Y27632 and SB772077B completely abolished (P < 0.05) the enhanced contractile effects with a high-concentration glucose solution, compared with control tissues. In cultured ASM cells, incubation with high glucose concentrations significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced bradykinin-induced intracellular calcium flux and the levels of pMYPT1, which were inhibited by Y27632 (P < 0.05). Our study has demonstrated that high glucose concentrations leads to hyperresponsiveness of human isolated bronchi and enhances intracellular calcium release in cultured ASM cells via a Rho/ROCK- and pMYPT1-dependent pathway, suggesting that this crucial pathway may contribute to the reduced lung function observed in patients with diabetes. These data propose novel targets for the treatment of patients with respiratory diseases that also suffer from diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 by the American Thoracic Society.