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Raglio A.,Sospiro Foundation | Bellelli G.,University of Milan Bicocca | Bellelli G.,Geriatric Research Group | Mazzola P.,University of Milan Bicocca | And 10 more authors.
Maturitas | Year: 2012

This study reviews the most recent (from 2000 to 2011) Clinical Controlled Trials (CCT) and Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) concerning the use of music and music-therapy (MT) in the context of dementia and related issues. Studies which explored the efficacy of music and MT on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are prevalent, while those aiming at assessing a potential effect of these approaches on cognitive and physiological aspects are scant. Although with some limitations, the results of these studies are consistent with the efficacy of MT approach on BPSD. In this context, the ability of the music therapist to directly interact with the patients appears to be crucial for the success of the intervention. This review was endorsed by the Italian Psychogeriatric Association (AIP) and represents its view about the criteria to select appropriate music and MT approaches in the field of dementia. Accordingly, we have developed a list of recommendations to facilitate the current use of these techniques in the context of non-pharmacological treatments for patients with dementia. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Moretti D.V.,IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli
BBA Clinical | Year: 2016

Background: Mirror neurons have been localized in several locations, including the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Increase of EEG alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio has been detected in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects who will convert in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the association of alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio with cortical thickness in IPL in MCI subjects. Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent EEG recording and high resolution MRI. Alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio as well as cortical thickness were computed for each subject. Three MCI groups were obtained according to increasing tertile values of alpha3/alpha2 ratio. Difference of cortical thickness among the groups was estimated. Results: Higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio group had wider cortical thinning than other groups, mapped on the IPL, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus bilaterally. Conclusions: High EEG alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio was associated with atrophy of IPL areas in MCI subjects. General significance: The scientific hypothesis is divided into the following main points: 1) the theoretical background considering two recent theories, an evolutionary perspective theory and the theory of mind (ToM), which both track a possible relationship between prodromal AD and mirror system; 2) the relationship has been focused on the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease, that is a peculiar and very debated phase of the disease itself; and 3) not a generical relationship, but a focused anatomo-functional association has been proposed. © 2016 The Author. Source

Vecchio F.,AFaR | Babiloni C.,University of Foggia | Lizio R.,IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana | De Vico Fallani F.,IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia | And 5 more authors.
Supplements to Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2013

The human brain contains an intricate network of about 100 billion neurons. Aging of the brain is characterized by a combination of synaptic pruning, loss of cortico-cortical connections, and neuronal apoptosis that provoke an age-dependent decline of cognitive functions. Neural/synaptic redundancy and plastic remodeling of brain networking, also secondary to mental and physical training, promote maintenance of brain activity and cognitive status in healthy elderly subjects for everyday life. However, age is the main risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) that impact on cognition. Growing evidence supports the idea that AD targets specific and functionally connected neuronal networks and that oscillatory electromagnetic brain activity might be a hallmark of the disease. In this line, digital electroencephalography (EEG) allows noninvasive analysis of cortical neuronal synchronization, as revealed by resting state brain rhythms. This review provides an overview of the studies on resting state eyes-closed EEG rhythms recorded in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD subjects. Several studies support the idea that spectral markers of these EEG rhythms, such as power density, spectral coherence, and other quantitative features, differ among normal elderly, MCI, and AD subjects, at least at group level. Regarding the classification of these subjects at individual level, the most previous studies showed a moderate accuracy (70-80%) in the classification of EEG markers relative to normal and AD subjects. In conclusion, resting state EEG makers are promising for large-scale, low-cost, fully noninvasive screening of elderly subjects at risk of AD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Moretti D.V.,IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli | Frisoni G.B.,IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli | Fracassi C.,IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli | Pievani M.,IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli | And 5 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2011

The theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 ratio were investigated as early markers for prognosticating of progression to dementia. 76 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) underwent EEG recording, MRI scans and neuropsychological (NPS) tests. After 3 years of follow-up, three subgroups were characterized as converters to Alzheimer's disease (AD, N= 18), converters to non-AD dementia (N= 14) and non-converters (N= 44). The theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 ratio, performance on cognitive tests and hippocampal volume, as evaluated at the time of initial MCI diagnosis, were studied in the three groups. As expected, MCI to AD converters had the smallest mean hippocampal volume and poorest performance on verbal learning tests, whereas MCI to non-AD converters had poorest cognitive performance in non-verbal learning tests, abstract thinking, and letter fluency. Increased theta/gamma ratio was associated with conversion to both AD and non-AD dementia; increased alpha3/alpha2 ratio was only associated with conversion to AD. Theta/gamma and alpha3/alpha2 ratio could be promising prognostic markers in MCI patients. In particular, the increase of high alpha frequency seems to be associated with conversion in AD. EEG markers allow a mean correct percentage of correct classification up to 88.3%. Future prospective studies are needed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of these measures for predicting an AD outcome. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. Source

Moretti D.V.,IRCCS S Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2015

Background: Thinning in the temporoparietal cortex, hippocampal atrophy, and a lower regional blood perfusion is connected with prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Of note, an increase of electroencephalography (EEG) upper/low alpha frequency power ratio has also been associated with these major landmarks of prodromal AD. Methods: Clinical and neuropsychological assessment, EEG recording, and high-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging were done in 74 grown up subjects with mild cognitive impairment. This information was gathered and has been assessed 3 years postliminary. EEG recording and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography assessment was done in 27 subjects. Alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio, including cortical thickness, was figured for every subject. Contrasts in cortical thickness among the groups were assessed. Pearson’s r relationship coefficient was utilized to evaluate the quality of the relationship between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and EEG markers. Results: The higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio group corresponded with more prominent cortical decay and a lower perfusional rate in the temporoparietal cortex. In a subsequent meetup after 3 years, these patients had AD. Conclusion: High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was connected with cortical diminishing and lower perfusion in the temporoparietal brain area. The increase in EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio could be helpful in recognizing people in danger of conversion to AD dementia and this may be quality information in connection with clinical assessment. © 2015 Moretti. Source

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