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San Donato di Ninea, Italy

Songia P.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino IRCCS | Songia P.,University of Milan | Branchetti E.,University of Pennsylvania | Parolari A.,Policlinico San Donato IRCCS | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology | Year: 2016

Aims Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has a prevalence of 3% in the general population, affecting > 176 million people worldwide. Despite this, little is known about the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of MVP and surgical intervention is the only available option. In this study we investigated the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG) during endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in MVP. Methods and results VECs and VICs were isolated from posterior mitral valve leaflets of patients undergoing mitral valve repair (n = 25). Plasma was collected from 57 subjects (29 controls and 28 MVP patients). Overexpression of OPG during EndMT followed by autocrine effects characterised by reactive oxygen species increment and accelerated migration was documented. In addition, OPG increased VIC proliferation. Finally, OPG plasma levels were significantly higher in MVP patients compared to control subjects and the area under the ROC curve was 0.92. Conclusion EndMT has been recognised as a possible pathological mechanism for MVP. For the first time, we report the involvement of OPG in cellular and molecular changes in MVP isolated cells. In addition, we detected elevated circulating OPG levels in MVP patients when compared to controls, which supports the hypothesis that OPG is involved in MVP development and progression. © 2016

Angiero F.,University of Milan Bicocca | Feslova V.,Policlinico San Donato IRCCS | Rizzuti T.,Fondazione Ca Granda Niguarda | Stefani M.,University of Milan Bicocca
Pathologica | Year: 2011

Objectives. Congenital heart defects may be associated with various extracardiac and chromosomal anomalies, and complex cardiac defects may occur in the presence of heterotaxy syndromes, in which both lungs are bilobate, in left isomerism, or both trilobate, in right isomerism. Lung lobation defects are otherwise very rare. Lung lobation is recognisable only at autopsy; however, its definition is fundamental for evaluation of the visceroatrial arrangement, together with other characteristic signs. Method. We report seven cases of congenital heart defects diagnosed prenatally at 14-31 weeks of gestation (wg), 5 females and 2 males, in which autopsy revealed lung lobation defects in the presence of normal visceroatrial arrangement, in association with other extracardiac anomalies or dysmorphism. Results. Three foetuses had hypoplastic left heart syndrome, one had corrected transposition of great arteries, one had tricuspid atresia, one Ebstein's anomaly and one had ventricular septal defect in trisomy 21. In six cases, pregnancy had been terminated, while the foetus with Ebstein's anomaly died in utero at 32 wg for supraventricular tachycardia. Monolobate, bilobate, trilobate and quadrilobate lungs were found in these foetuses, together with other minor extracardiac anomalies or dysmorphism. Conclusions. Autoptic analysis in cases with prenatal diagnosisis needed to confirm echographic findings and reveal other minor anomalies, undetectable by ultrasound imaging that may complete the malformation pattern, which is useful to the couple for genetic counselling.

Vigna C.,Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital IRCCS | Marchese N.,Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital IRCCS | Zanchetta M.,Ospedale Civile | Chessa M.,Policlinico San Donato IRCCS | And 6 more authors.
Echocardiography | Year: 2012

Background: Transesophageal (TEE) and intracardiac (ICE) echocardiography are commonly used to guide percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. The study aim was to perform a head-to-head comparison between TEE and rotational ICE echocardiography in the measurement of the fossa ovalis and device selection. Methods: In 45 patients with cryptogenic stroke or peripheral embolism and PFO with large right-to-left shunt, fossa ovalis dimensions were assessed preoperatively by TEE and intraoperatively by rotational ICE. The Amplatzer devices, deployed on the basis of ICE, were compared with those that would have been selected by TEE. Results: A good correlation between TEE and rotational ICE was observed for both longitudinal and transverse fossa ovalis dimensions (TEE four-chamber vs. ICE four-chamber: r = 0.75; TEE bicaval vs. ICE four-chamber: r = 0.77; TEE aorta vs. ICE aorta: r = 0.59; P < 0.001 for all). However, no such correlation was found in 13 patients with atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) (TEE four-chamber vs. ICE four-chamber: r = 0.33; TEE bicaval vs. ICE four-chamber: r = 0.49; TEE aorta vs. ICE aorta: r = 0.05; P = NS for all). At Bland-Altman analysis, slight systematic differences with wide limits of agreement for each comparison were observed, particularly in patients with ASA, suggesting that the two imaging modalities cannot be used interchangeably. As regards device selection, a moderate agreement was found between TEE- and ICE-guided device size (72%, κ= 0.53, P < 0.001), except in patients with ASA (36%, κ= 0.02, P = NS). Conclusions: Our study suggests a significant disagreement between TEE and rotational ICE in measuring fossa ovalis and selecting the device for PFO closure, particularly in patients with ASA. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Butera G.,Policlinico San Donato IRCCS | Lovin N.,Institutul Of Boli Cardiovasculare Profdrgeorge Im Georgescu | Basile D.P.,Policlinico San Donato IRCCS
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2016

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) transcatheter closure is a widespread procedure. However in some cases PDA measurements may be unclear and choice of the proper device could be quite difficult. This may happen in large PDA and in particular in adults. We have developed a new technique using an ASD sizing balloon to measure the PDA in order to better understand PDA anatomy and size. The first step is to create an artero-venous circuit across the PDA. A 24 or a 34 mm Amplatzer balloon sizing for ASD closure is placed over the wire from the venous access in the descending aorta. Then, the balloon is inflated and gently pulled back across the PDA toward the pulmonary artery. The frame where the balloon is exactly across the PDA is chosen and measurements performed. In conclusion, a new method for PDA measurement in large PDA is reported. The procedure is safe and reliable. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Jonker F.H.W.,Maasstad Hospital Rotterdam | Trimarchi S.,Policlinico San Donato IRCCS | Rampoldi V.,Policlinico San Donato IRCCS | Patel H.J.,University of Michigan | And 11 more authors.
Annals of Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2012

Background: A considerable number of patients with acute type B aortic dissection (ABAD) treated with medical management alone will exhibit aortic enlargement during follow-up, which could lead to aortic aneurysm and rupture. The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors of aortic expansion among ABAD patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection. Methods: We analyzed 191 ABAD patients treated with medical therapy alone enrolled in the registry between 1996 and 2010, with available descending aortic diameter measurements at admission and during follow-up. The annual aortic expansion rate was calculated for all patients, and multivariate regression analysis was used to investigate factors affecting the expansion rate. Results: Aortic expansion was observed in 59% of ABAD patients; mean expansion rate was 1.7 ± 7 mm/y. In multivariate analysis, white race (regression coefficient [RC], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 7.7) and an initial aortic diameter less than 4.0 cm (RC, 6.3; 95% CI, 4.0 to 8.6) were associated with increased aortic expansion. Female sex (RC, -3.8; 95% CI, -6.1 to -1.4), intramural hematoma (RC, -3.8; 95% CI, -6.5 to -1.1), and use of calcium-channel blockers (RC, -3.8; 95% CI, -6.2 to -1.3) were associated with decreased aortic expansion. Conclusions: White race and a small initial aortic diameter were associated with increased aortic expansion during follow-up, and decreased aortic expansion was observed among women, patients with intramural hematoma, and those on calcium-channel blockers. These data raise the possibility that the use of calcium-channel blockers after ABAD may reduce the rate of aortic expansion, and therefore further investigation is warranted. © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

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