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Barbagallo I.,University of Catania | Marrazzo G.,University of Catania | Frigiola A.,IRCCS Policlinico S. Donato | Zappala A.,University of Catania | Volti G.L.,University of Catania
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2012

During the degradation of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), Carbon monoxide (CO) is generated. Although it is considered as a non - significant and potentially toxic waste gas of heme catabolism, CO is a key signaling molecule used to regulate different cardiovascular functions. In this review, we focus the protective roles of CO in vascular injury/disease, which may be important to explore the overall protective roles of HO-1/CO system in the pathogenesis of human vascular disease. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Godos J.,Jagiellonian University | Pluchinotta F.R.,IRCCS Policlinico S. Donato | Marventano S.,University of Catania | Buscemi S.,University of Palermo | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Coffee consists of several biological active compounds, such as caffeine, diterpenes, chlorogenic acids, and melanoidins, which may affect human health. The intake of each compound depends on the variety of coffee species, roasting degree, type of brewing method and serving size. The bioavailability and the distribution of each compound and its metabolites also contribute to coffee mechanisms of action. The health benefits of coffee consumption regarding cardiovascular system and metabolism mostly depend on its antioxidant compounds. In contrast, diterpenes and caffeine may produce harmful effects by raising lipid fraction and affecting endothelial function, respectively. Studying the mechanism of action of coffee components may help understanding weather coffee's impact on health is beneficial or hazardous. In this article, we reviewed the available information about coffee compounds and their mechanism of action. Furthermore, benefits and risks for cardiovascular system associated with coffee consumption will be discussed. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source

Marrazzo G.,University of Catania | Barbagallo I.,University of Catania | Galvano F.,University of Catania | Malaguarnera M.,University of Catania | And 4 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Diabetes affects different people of all ages, race, and sex. This is a condition characterized by a state of chronic hyperglycaemia that leads to an increase of intracellular oxidative stress linked to the overproduction of free radicals. In the present review, we focus our attention on the molecular mechanisms leading to oxidative stress-mediates complications with particular regard to central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, the present review reports the effects of different kind of antioxidants with enzymatic and nonenzymatic action that may significantly decrease the intracellular free radicals' overproduction and prevents the hyperglycaemia-mediated complications. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Colazzo F.,IRCCS Policlinico S. Donato | Colazzo F.,Imperial College London | Chester A.H.,Imperial College London | Taylor P.M.,Imperial College London | Yacoub M.H.,Imperial College London
Journal of Heart Valve Disease | Year: 2010

Background and aim of the study: Adipose tissue is a readily available source of multipotent adult stem cells for use in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are currently being investigated as a source of interstitial cells to populate tissue-engineered heart valve constructs. However, the ability of these cells to differentiate into endothelial cells that would be required to cover the surface of the valve cusps has not been fully investigated. Methods: ADSCs were isolated and characterized using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Endothelial differentiation was promoted by culturing confluent cells in the presence of 2% fetal calf serum and 50 ng/ml vascular endothelial growth factor. Differentiation was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining for endothelial markers, and an analysis of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL) uptake. An assessment of tubular formation was performed using an in vitro angiogenesis assay. Results: Isolated ADSCs were positive for the mesenchymal markers CD105, CD73, CD29, CD90 and CD44, and negative for hematopoietic and endothelial markers. After a seven-day treatment period, approximately 15% of ADSCs expressed the endothelial marker von Willebrand factor, and 70% had lost the expression of smooth muscle α-actin. Treated cells also were able to incorporate Ac-LDL, and also to form tubular structures on Matrigel, unlike control cells. Conclusion: Based on these results, ADSCs are capable of differentiating into cells with phenotypic and functional features of endothelial cells. These predifferentiated cells provide new options for the tissue engineering of heart valves, based on autologous mesenchymal stem cells. © Copyright by ICR Publishers 2010. Source

Riccioni G.,Cardiology Unit | Frigiola A.,IRCCS Policlinico S. Donato | Pasquale S.,University of Chieti Pescara | De Massimo G.,University of Chieti Pescara | D'Orazio N.,University of Chieti Pescara
Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite | Year: 2012

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a major source of mortality and morbidity in general population. Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) represent the most important determinant factor in the development and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Oxidative damage and the production of free radicals (FRs) in the endothelium are some of the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerotic process which causes CVD. Appropriate nutritional practices are of central importance in managing risk and treatment of CVD; indeed, many current guidelines contain nutritional recommendations to reduce the risk of these diseases. In observational studies vitamin C and E, the most prevalent natural antioxidant vitamins, have suggested that supplemental users have lower rate of coronary events. Despite these data, several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have failed to confirm the benefits for vitamin C and E in cardiovascular (CV) prevention. The aim of this review is to examine the studies published in literature which report the effect of supplementation with antioxidant vitamins (C,E) in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD in men due to atherosclerotic process. Source

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