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Fousteri G.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Jofra T.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Debernardis I.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Stanford S.M.,La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology | Year: 2014

Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) regulate T cell receptor (TCR) signalling and thus have a role in T cell differentiation. Here we tested whether the autoimmune predisposing gene PTPN22 encoding for a PTP that inhibits TCR signalling affects the generation of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ T regulatory (Treg) cells and T helper type 1 (Th1) cells. Murine CD4+ T cells isolated from Ptpn22 knock-out (Ptpn22KO) mice cultured in Treg cell polarizing conditions showed increased sensitivity to TCR activation compared to wild-type (WT) cells, and subsequently reduced FoxP3 expression at optimal-to-high levels of activation. However, at lower levels of TCR activation, Ptpn22KO CD4+ T cells showed enhanced expression of FoxP3. Similar experiments in humans revealed that at optimal levels of TCR activation PTPN22 knock-down by specific oligonucleotides compromises the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into Treg cells. Notably, in vivo Treg cell conversion experiments in mice showed delayed kinetic but overall increased frequency and number of Treg cells in the absence of Ptpn22. In contrast, the in vitro and in vivo generation of Th1 cells was comparable between WT and Ptpn22KO mice, thus suggesting PTPN22 as a FoxP3-specific regulating factor. Together, these results propose PTPN22 as a key factor in setting the proper threshold for FoxP3+ Treg cell differentiation. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

Bose F.,Laboratory of Translational Immunology | Petti L.,Laboratory of Translational Immunology | Diani M.,University of Milan | Moscheni C.,University of Milan | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Pathology | Year: 2013

Despite the evidence that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors block TNF and the downstream inflammatory cascade, their primary mechanism of action in inhibiting the self-sustaining pathogenic cycle in psoriasis is not completely understood. This study has the aim to identify early critical events for the resolution of inflammation in skin lesions using anti-TNF therapy. We used a translational approach that correlates gene expression fold change in lesional skin with the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score decrease induced by TNF blockade after 4 weeks of treatment. Data were validated by immunofluorescence microscopy on skin biopsy specimens. We found that the anti-TNF-modulated genes that mostly associated with the clinical amelioration were Ccr7, its ligand, Ccl19, and dendritic cell maturation genes. Decreased expression of T-cell activation genes and Vegf also associated with the clinical response. More important, the down-regulation of Ccr7 observed at 4 weeks significantly correlated with the clinical remission occurring at later time points. Immunofluorescence microscopy on skin biopsy specimens showed that reduction of CCR7+ cells and chemokine ligand (CCL) 19 was paralleled by disaggregation of the dermal lymphoid-like tissue. These data show that an early critical event for the clinical remission of psoriasis in response to TNF inhibitors is the inhibition of the CCR7/CCL19 axis and support its role in psoriasis pathogenesis. © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology.

Bayne C.E.,George Washington University | Williams S.B.,University of Houston | Cooperberg M.R.,University of California at San Francisco | Gleave M.E.,University of British Columbia | And 8 more authors.
European Urology | Year: 2016

Context Multimodal treatment for men with locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa) using neoadjuvant/adjuvant systemic therapy, surgery, and radiation therapy is being increasingly explored. There is also interest in the oncologic benefit of treating the primary tumor in the setting of metastatic PCa (mPCa). Objective To perform a review of the literature regarding the treatment of the primary tumor in the setting of mPCa. Evidence acquisition Medline, PubMed, and Scopus electronic databases were queried for English language articles from January 1990 to September 2014. Prospective and retrospective studies were included. Evidence synthesis There is no published randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing local therapy and systemic therapy to systemic therapy alone in the treatment of mPCa. Prospective studies of men with locally advanced PCa and retrospective studies of occult node-positive PCa have consistently shown the addition of local therapy to a multimodal treatment regimen improves outcomes. Molecular and genomic evidence further suggests the primary tumor may have an active role in mPCa. Conclusions Treatment of the primary tumor in mPCa is being increasingly explored. While preclinical, translational, and retrospective evidence supports local therapy in advanced disease, further prospective studies are under way to evaluate this multimodal approach and identify the patients most likely to benefit from the inclusion of local therapy in the setting of metastatic disease. Patient summary In this review we explored preclinical and clinical evidence for treatment of the primary tumor in metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa). We found evidence to support clinical trials investigating mPCa therapy that includes local treatment of the primary tumor. Currently, treating the primary tumor in mPCa is controversial and lacks high-level evidence sufficient for routine recommendation. © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pusztai L.,Yale University | Karn T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Safonov A.,Yale University | Abu-Khalaf M.M.,Yale University | Bianchini G.,IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2016

More than 70% of breast cancers contain lymphocytic infiltration in the stroma, and preclinical studies suggest that immunoediting and partial control of cancer progression by the local immune microenvironment operate in most breast cancers. Consistent with this hypothesis, a large number of studies demonstrated a favorable prognostic and chemotherapy response predictive role for immune infiltration in breast cancer. The evidence is particularly strong for triple-negative and HER2-positive cancers. The development of clinically effective immune checkpoint inhibitors now provides an opportunity to test the therapeutic potential of augmenting the local antitumor immune response. Several phase I clinical trials using single-agent anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies demonstrated objective tumor response rates, with remarkably durable responses, in heavily pretreated, metastatic, triplenegative cancers and somewhat lower responses in estrogen receptor-positive cancers. Currently, close to 50 ongoing, or soon to open, clinical trials evaluate the role of this new treatment modality in breast cancer. © 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

Zipeto D.,University of Verona | Beretta A.,IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele
Retrovirology | Year: 2012

The major histocompatibility complex class I protein HLA-C plays a crucial role as a molecule capable of sending inhibitory signals to both natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) via binding to killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR). Recently HLA-C has been recognized as a key molecule in the immune control of HIV-1. Expression of HLA-C is modulated by a microRNA binding site. HLA-C alleles that bear substitutions in the microRNA binding site are more expressed at the cell surface and associated with the control of HIV-1 viral load, suggesting a role of HLA-C in the presentation of antigenic peptides to CTLs. This review highlights the role of HLA-C in association with HIV-1 viral load, but also addresses the contradiction of the association between high cell surface expression of an inhibitory molecule and strong cell-mediated immunity. To explore additional mechanisms of control of HIV-1 replication by HLA-C, we address specific features of the molecule, like its tendency to be expressed as open conformer upon cell activation, which endows it with a unique capacity to associate with other cell surface molecules as well as with HIV-1 proteins. © 2012 Zipeto and Beretta licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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