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Sandrini G.,University of Pavia | Perrotta A.,University of Pavia | Perrotta A.,IRCCS Mediterranean Neurological Institute NEUROMED | Tassorelli C.,University of Pavia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Headache and Pain | Year: 2011

Medication-overuse headache (MOH) represents a severely disabling condition, with a low response to prophylactic treatments. Recently, consistent evidences have emerged in favor of botulinum toxin type-A (onabotulinum toxin A) as prophylactic treatment in chronic migraine. In a 12-week double-blind, parallel group, placebo- controlled study, we tested the efficacy and safety of onabotulinum toxin A as prophylactic treatment for MOH. A total of 68 patients were randomized (1:1) to onabotulinum toxin A (n = 33) or placebo (n = 35) treatment and received 16 intramuscular injections. The primary efficacy end point was mean change from baseline in the frequency of headache days for the 28-day period ending with week 12. No significant differences between onabotulinum toxin A and placebo treatment were detected in the primary (headache days) end point (12.0 vs. 15.9; p = 0.81). A significant reduction was recorded in the secondary end point, mean acute pain drug consumption at 12 weeks in onabotulinum toxin A-treated patients when compared with those with placebo (12.1 vs. 18.0; p = 0.03). When we considered the subgroup of patients with pericranial muscle tenderness, we recorded a significant improvement in those treated with onabotulinum toxin A compared to placebo treated in both primary (headache days) and secondary end points (acute pain drug consumption, days with drug consumption), as well as in pain intensity and disability measures (HIT-6 and MIDAS) at 12 weeks. Onabotulinum toxin A was safe and well tolerated, with few treatment-related adverse events. Few subjects discontinued due to adverse events. Our data identified the presence of pericranial muscle tenderness as predictor of response to onabotulinum toxin A in patients with complicated form of migraine such as MOH, the presence of pericranial muscle tenderness and support it as prophylactic treatment in these patients. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Perrotta A.,IRCCS Mediterranean Neurological Institute NEUROMED | Serpino C.,University of Bari | Cormio C.,University of Bari | Serrao M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2012

Objectives: Our study is aimed to evaluate the spinal cord pain processing in Huntington's disease (HD) by testing both the temporal summation threshold (TST) of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and the functional activity of the diffuse noxious inhibitory control (DNIC) as form of supraspinal control of pain. Methods: We enrolled 19 HD patients and 17 healthy controls. We measured threshold (Th), Area, TST and related psychophysical pain sensations of the NWR, at baseline and during and after activation of the DNIC by means of cold pressor test (CPT) as heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulation. Results: In HD patients we found a significantly higher Th and TST as well as a lower Area when compared to controls. During the CPT, a significant inhibition of reflex and psychophysical pain responses were found in both HD patients and controls when compared to baseline, without differences between the groups in CPT results. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated an abnormal spinal cord pain processing in HD patients. Abnormalities in pain processing are not apparently linked to a dysfunctional DNIC inhibitory projection system in HD patients. Significance: Our findings support the hypothesis that the striatum could play a role in pain modulation and that its atrophy could affect pain processing without change the DNIC efficiency. © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Source

Formisano A.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Bammann K.,University of Bremen | Bammann K.,Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS GmbH | Fraterman A.,Laboratoriumsmedizin Dortmund | And 10 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2016

Background and aims: Several studies demonstrated that larger neck circumference (NC) in children and adolescents may help to identify obesity and cardio-metabolic abnormalities. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between NC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors and to determine the utility of this anthropometric index to identify MetS in European children. Methods and results: The present cross-sectional analysis includes 15,673 children (3-10 years) participating in the IDEFICS study. A continuous MetS (cMetS) score was calculated summing age and sex standardized z-scores of specific MetS risk factors. Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis, stratified by one-year age groups, was used to determine the ability of NC to identify children with unfavorable metabolic profile, corresponding to cMetS score ≥ 90th percentile.The areas under the curve values for NC associated with cMetS score values ≥ 90th percentile were significantly greater in girls than in boys (p < 0.001), except for 5 < 6 years group. For boys, optimal NC cut-off values ranged from 26.2 cm for the lowest age group (3 < 4 years), up to 30.9 cm for the highest age group (9 < 10 years). In girls, corresponding values varied from 24.9 cm to 29.6 cm. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the efficacy of NC in identifying European children with an unfavorable metabolic profile. © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Source

Gonzalez-Gil E.M.,University of Zaragoza | Santabarbara J.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Salud Mental Cibersam | Santabarbara J.,University of Zaragoza | Siani A.,National Research Council Italy | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background/Objectives: Fatty acids are hypothesized to influence cardiovascular disease risk because of their effect on inflammation. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between whole-blood fatty acids (WBFAs) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in European children. Subjects/Methods: A total of 1401 subjects (697 boys and 704 girls) aged between 2 and 9 years from the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects in Children and infantS) study were measured in this cross-sectional analysis. The sample was divided into three categories of hs-CRP. Associations between WBFA and hs-CRP were assessed by logistic regression models adjusting for body mass index (BMI), country, age, breastfeeding, mother's education and hours of physical activity. Results: Linoleic acid (LA) (P=0.013, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.822-0.977) and sum of n-6 WBFA (P=0.029, 95% CI: 0.866-0.992) concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of hs-CRP in boys. In girls, a high ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) was associated (P=0.018, 95% CI: 0.892-0.989) with lower hs-CRP concentrations. In contrast, sum of blood n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (P=0.012, 95% CI: 1.031-1.284), AA (P=0.007, 95% CI: 1.053-1.395) and AA/LA ratio (P=0.005, 95% CI: 1.102-1.703) were associated (P<0.05) with higher concentrations of hs-CRP in girls. Conclusions: The n-6 WBFAs (sum of n-6 FA and LA) were associated with lower hs-CRP in boys and with higher hs-CRP in girls (AA, sum of n-6 highly unsaturated and AA/LA ratio). More studies are needed to identify the optimal levels of WBFAs to avoid low-grade inflammation in children considering the differences by sex and BMI. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source

Perrotta A.,IRCCS Mediterranean Neurological Institute NEUROMED | Arce-Leal N.,IRCCS Mediterranean Neurological Institute NEUROMED | Arce-Leal N.,University of Pavia | Tassorelli C.,University of Pavia | And 12 more authors.
Headache | Year: 2012

Objectives.-We investigated (1) a possible relationship between the functional activity of the endocannabinoid system and the facilitation of pain processing in migraineurs with medication-overuse headache, and (2) the effect of withdrawal treatment on both. Background.-The endocannabinoid system antinociception effect includes prevention of nociceptive pathways sensitization. The sensitization of the pain pathways has been demonstrated to be pivotal in the development and maintenance of chronic form of migraine, including medication-overuse headache. Methods.-We used the temporal summation threshold of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex to explore the spinal cord pain processing, and the platelet activity of the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase to detect the functional state of the endocannabinoid system in 27 medication-overuse headache subjects before and 10 and 60 days after a standard withdrawal treatment and compared results with those of 14 controls. Results.-A significantly reduced temporal summation threshold and increased related pain sensation was found in subjects before withdrawal treatment when compared with controls. A significant fatty acid amide hydrolase activity reduction coupled with a significant improvement (reduction) in facilitation of spinal cord pain processing (increase in temporal summation threshold and reduction in related pain sensation) was found in medication-overuse headache subjects at both 10 and 60 days after withdrawal treatment when compared with medication-overuse headache subjects before withdrawal treatment. Conclusions.-We demonstrated a marked facilitation in spinal cord pain processing in medication-overuse headache before withdrawal treatment when compared with controls. Furthermore, the acute reduction of the fatty acid amide hydrolase activity coupled with a reduction of the facilitation in pain processing immediately (10 days) after withdrawal treatment and its persistence 60 days after withdrawal treatment could represent the consequence of a mechanism devoted to acutely reduce the degradation of endocannabinoids and aimed to increase the activity of the endocannabinoid system that results in an antinociceptive effect. © 2012 American Headache Society. Source

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