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Venezia, Italy

Agnati L.F.,IRCCS Lido | Fuxe K.,Karolinska Institutet
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences

Two major types of intercellular communication are found in the central nervous system (CNS), namely wiring transmission (WT; point-to-point communication via private channels, e.g. synaptic transmission) and volume transmission (VT; communication in the extracellular fluid and in the cerebrospinal fluid). Volume and synaptic transmission become integrated because their chemical signals activate different types of interacting receptors in heteroreceptor complexes located synaptically and extrasynaptically in the plasma membrane. In VT, we focus on the role of the extracellular-vesicle type of VT, and in WT, on the potential role of the tunnelling-nanotube (TNT) type of WT. The so-called exosomes appear to be the major vesicular carrier for intercellular communication but the larger microvesicles also participate. Extracellular vesicles are released from cultured cortical neurons and different types of glial cells and modulate the signalling of the neuronal-glial networks of the CNS. This type of VT has pathological relevance, and epigenetic mechanisms may participate in the modulation of extracellular-vesicle-mediated VT. Gerdes and co-workers proposed the existence of a novel type of WT based on TNTs, which are straight transcellular channels leading to the formation in vitro of syncytial cellular networks found also in neuronal and glial cultures. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Borroto-Escuela D.O.,Karolinska Institutet | Flajolet M.,Rockefeller University | Agnati L.F.,IRCCS Lido | Greengard P.,Rockefeller University | Fuxe K.,Karolinska Institutet
Methods in Cell Biology

A large body of evidence indicates that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can form heteroreceptor complexes. In these complexes, the signaling from each interacting protomer is modulated to produce an integrated and therefore novel response upon agonist(s) activation. In the GPCR-RTK heteroreceptor complexes, GPCRs can activate RTK in the absence of added growth factor through the use of RTK signaling molecules. This integrative phenomenon is reciprocal and can place also RTK signaling downstream of GPCR. Formation of either stable or transient complexes by these two important classes of membrane receptors is involved in regulating all aspects of receptor function, from ligand binding to signal transduction, trafficking, desensitization, and downregulation among others. Functional phenomena can be modulated with conformation-specific inhibitors that stabilize defined GPCR states to abrogate both GPCR agonist- and growth factor-stimulated cell responses or by means of small interfering heteroreceptor complex interface peptides. The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology has emerged as a powerful method to study the structure of heteroreceptor complexes closely associated with the study of receptor-receptor interactions in such complexes. In this chapter, we provide an overview of different BRET2 assays that can be used to study the structure of GPCR-RTK heteroreceptor complexes and their functions. Various experimental designs for optimization of these experiments are also described. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Borroto-Escuela D.O.,Karolinska Institutet | Romero-Fernandez W.,Karolinska Institutet | Garriga P.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Ciruela F.,University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
Methods in Enzymology

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in cellular processes and signaling and have been shown to form heteromers with diverge biochemical and/or pharmacological activities that are different from those of the corresponding monomers or homomers. However, despite extensive experimental results supporting the formation of GPCR heteromers in heterologous systems, the existence of such receptor heterocomplexes in the brain remains largely unknown, mostly because of the lack of appropriate methodology. Herein, we describe the in situ proximity ligation assay procedure underlining its high selectivity and sensitivity to image GPCR heteromers with confocal microscopy in brain sections. We describe here how the assay is performed and discuss advantages and disadvantages of this method compared with other available techniques. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Fuxe K.,Karolinska Institutet | Borroto-Escuela D.O.,Karolinska Institutet | Romero-Fernandez W.,Karolinska Institutet | Diaz-Cabiale Z.,University of Malaga | And 9 more authors.
Frontiers in Physiology

Extrasynaptic neurotransmission is an important short distance form of volume transmission (VT) and describes the extracellular diffusion of transmitters and modulators after synaptic spillover or extrasynaptic release in the local circuit regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. Receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromers play a major role, on dendritic spines and nerve terminals including glutamate synapses, in the integrative processes of the extrasynaptic signaling. Heteromeric complexes between GPCR and ion-channel receptors play a special role in the integration of the synaptic and extrasynaptic signals. Changes in extracellular concentrations of the classical synaptic neu-rotransmitters glutamate and GABA found with microdialysis is likely an expression of the activity of the neuron-astrocyte unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. Thus, the activity of neurons may be functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which may release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space where extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors do exist. Wiring transmission (WT) and VT are fundamental properties of all neurons of the CNS but the balance between WT and VT varies from one nerve cell population to the other. The focus is on the striatal cellular networks, and the WT and VT and their integration via receptor heteromers are described in the GABA projection neurons, the glutamate, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and histamine striatal afferents, the cholinergic interneurons, and different types of GABA interneurons. In addition, the role in these networks of VT signaling of the energy-dependent modulator adenosine and of endocannabinoids mainly formed in the striatal projection neurons will be underlined to understand the communication in the striatal cellular networks. © 2012 Fuxe, Borroto-Escuela, Romero-Fernandez, Diaz-Cabiale, Rivera, Ferraro, Tanganelli, Tarakanov, Garriga, Narvdez, Ciruela, Guescini and Agnati. Source

Borroto-Escuela D.O.,Karolinska Institutet | Romero-Fernandez W.,Karolinska Institutet | Narvaez M.,University of Malaga | Oflijan J.,University of Tartu | And 2 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Dopamine D2LR-serotonin 5-HT2AR heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells after cotransfection of the two receptors and shown to have bidirectional receptor-receptor interactions. In the current study the existence of D2L-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complexes was demonstrated also in discrete regions of the ventral and dorsal striatum with in situ proximity ligation assays (PLA). The hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists LSD and DOI but not the standard 5-HT2AR agonist TCB2 and 5-HT significantly increased the density of D2like antagonist 3H-raclopride binding sites and significantly reduced the pKiH values of the high affinity D2R agonist binding sites in 3H-raclopride/DA competition experiments. Similar results were obtained in HEK293 cells and in ventral striatum. The effects of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists on D2R density and affinity were blocked by the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin. In a forskolin-induced CRE-luciferase reporter gene assay using cotransfected but not D2R singly transfected HEK293 cells DOI and LSD but not TCB2 significantly enhanced the D2LR agonist quinpirole induced inhibition of CRE-luciferase activity. Haloperidol blocked the effects of both quinpirole alone and the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD while ketanserin only blocked the enhancing actions of DOI and LSD. The mechanism for the allosteric enhancement of the D2R protomer recognition and signalling observed is likely mediated by a biased agonist action of the hallucinogenic 5-HT2AR agonists at the orthosteric site of the 5-HT2AR protomer. This mechanism may contribute to the psychotic actions of LSD and DOI and the D2-5-HT2A heteroreceptor complex may thus be a target for the psychotic actions of hallunicogenic 5-HT2A agonists. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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