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Drago L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute
APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica | Year: 2014

To address the problem of limited efficacy of existing antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial biofilm, it is necessary to find alternative remedies. One candidate could be hyaluronic acid; this study therefore aimed to evaluate the in vitro antiadhesive and antibiofilm activity of hyaluronic acid toward bacterial species commonly isolated from respiratory infections. Interference exerted on bacterial adhesion was evaluated by using Hep-2 cells, while the antibiofilm activity was assessed by means of spectrophotometry after incubation of biofilm with hyaluronic acid and staining with crystal violet. Our data suggest that hyaluronic acid is able to interfere with bacterial adhesion to a cellular substrate in a concentration-dependent manner, being notably active when assessed as pure substance. Moreover, we found that Staphylococcus aureus biofilm was more sensitive to the action of hyaluronic acid than biofilm produced by Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. In conclusion, hyaluronic acid is characterized by notable antiadhesive properties, while it shows a moderate activity against bacterial biofilm. As bacterial adhesion to oral cells is the first step for colonization, these results further sustain the role of hyaluronic acid in prevention of respiratory infections. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Lopa S.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Madry H.,Saarland University
Tissue Engineering - Part A | Year: 2014

Osteochondral defects are difficult to treat because the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone have dissimilar characteristics and abilities to regenerate. Bioinspired scaffolds are designed to mimic structural and biological cues of the native osteochondral unit, supporting both cartilaginous and subchondral bone repair and the integration of the newly formed osteochondral matrix with the surrounding tissues. The aim of this review is to outline fundamental requirements and strategies for the development of biomimetic scaffolds reproducing the unique and multifaceted anatomical structure of the osteochondral unit. Recent progress in preclinical animal studies using bilayer and multilayer scaffolds, together with continuous gradient scaffolds will be discussed and placed in a translational perspective with data emerging from their clinical application to treat osteochondral defects in patients. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Casale R.,Foundation Salvatore Maugeri IRCCS | Atzeni F.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Sarzi-Puttini P.,University of Milan
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a highly painful, limb-confined condition that usually arises after a trauma although its causes remain unknown. It is associated with a particularly poor quality of life, and considerable healthcare and societal costs. Its distinct combination of abnormalities includes limb-confined inflammation and tissue hypoxia, sympathetic dysregulation, small fibre damage, serum autoantibodies, central sensitisation and cortical reorganisation, which place it at the crossroads of disciplines including rheumatology, pain medicine and neurology. The significant scientific and clinical advances made over the past 10 years promise an improved understanding of the causes of CRPS, and for more effective treatments. This review summarises the currently available treatments. The therapeutic approach is multidisciplinary, and involves educating patients about the condition, sustaining or restoring limb function, reducing pain, and providing psychological support. This paper describes the systemic drug treatments, grouped on the basis of their real or presumed antinociceptive mechanisms and reported actions without making any formal distinction between CRPS types I and II. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2015.

Romano C.L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Romano D.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Albisetti A.,Gaetano Pini Orthopaedic Institute | Meani E.,Gaetano Pini Orthopaedic Institute
HIP International | Year: 2012

Two-stage revision is the most widely accepted and performed intervention for chronically infected hip prosthesis and different interim spacers have been proposed. In recent years, antibioticloaded preformed spacers have become available on the market. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the long-term results of two-stage revision with preformed spacers and uncemented hip prosthesis for the treatment of septic hip prosthesis. From 2000 to 2010, 183 consecutive patients underwent two-stage revision of septic hip prosthesis, with a same protocol, including preformed antibiotic-loaded cement spacer and a cementless modular hip revision prosthesis and four to six weeks antibiotic administration. Clinical and radiologic assessment at a minimum follow-up of two years was performed. At a minimum two years follow-up, 10 patients (5.4%) had had an infection recurrence, four (2.2%) an aseptic loosening and four more required partial revision of the modular components of the prosthesis, because of hip instability/dislocation; 21 patients died or were lost to follow-up. Considering all the reasons for revision, survivorship at eleven years was 93.9%. Harris Hip Score improved from 29.1 ± 14.6 pre-operatively to 41.1 ± 15.9 after spacer implant and 81.7 ± 17.6 after hip revision. The main complications after spacer implant included: spacer dislocation (16.4%), intra-operative femoral fractures (2.7%), and thromboembolism (2.1%). Complications after hip revision were: instability/ dislocation (4,3%), intra-operative femoral fractures (1.6%), and thromboembolism (3.3%). Two-stage revision of septic hip prosthesis with preformed antibiotic-loaded spacers and cementless hip prosthesis provides satisfactory long-term results, with reduced complications. © 2012 Wichtig Editore.

Moja L.,University of Milan | Moja L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute | Kwag K.H.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute
Postgraduate Medical Journal | Year: 2015

The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

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