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Gervaso F.,University of Salento | Sannino A.,University of Salento | Peretti G.M.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedics Institute | Peretti G.M.,University of Milan
Joints | Year: 2013

This paper focuses on tissue engineering (TE) from the biomaterialist’s point of view. With the aim of answering some simple but key questions about TE, the related literature is here reviewed. In order to obtain an engineered tissue the following steps are mandatory: (a) cell selection, (b) identification of the ideal three-dimensional scaffold for cell seeding and proliferation, (c) choice of the most suitable type of cell culture. Whereas the biotechnologist working in the TE field is responsible for optimizing the cell seeding and culture, the biomaterialist has the challenging task of optimizing the three-dimensional cell support, or scaffold. Therefore, in the present paper, scaffold properties, biomaterials and fabrication technologies are analyzed in depth and reviewed on the basis of the current literature. Finally, mention is also made of the most recently emerging and innovative technologies relating to scaffolds for TE applications. © 2013, CIC Edizioni Internazionali s.r.l. All rights reserved. Source

Pascale V.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedics Institute | Pascale W.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedics Institute | Lavanga V.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedics Institute | Sansone V.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopaedics Institute | And 2 more authors.
Medical Science Monitor | Year: 2013

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway in osteoarthritis (OA). Material/Methods: The study groups consisted of 32 patients with knee OA and 31 healthy controls. In peripheral venous blood samples (from the OA patients and the controls) and in synovial fluid samples (from the OA patients), the concentrations of L-arginine (ARN), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) were evaluated. In plasma samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were also measured. Results: Plasma ARN concentrations were lower in the OA patients than in controls (53.55±16.37 vs. 70.20±25.68 μmol/l) (P<0.05), while plasma ADMA concentrations were similar. Accordingly, the ARN/ADMA ratio was lower in the OA patients than in the control group (80.85±29.58 vs. 110.51±30.48, P<0.05). Plasma SDMA and TBARS concentrations were higher in the OA patients than in controls (0.69±0.15 vs. 0.60±0.10 μmol/l, P<0.05 and 1.21±0.29 vs. 0.55±0.12, respectively) (P<0.001). In the OA patients, ADMA concentrations were significantly higher in the synovial fluid than in plasma (0.75±0.09 vs. 0.69±0.14 μmol/l, P<0.05), as were ARN concentrations (76.96±16.73 vs. 53.55±16.73 μmol/l) (P<0.00001). Conclusions: These results indicate a poor availability of NO in the synovial fluid of the OA patients, which may contribute to the progression of OA. The decreased ARN/ADMA ratio and the increased SDMA and TBARS in the plasma of the OA patients suggest an impairment of endothelial function in these subjects. © Med Sci Monit, 2013. Source

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