IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico

Italy

IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico

Italy
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

PubMed | University of Zürich, Medical University of Graz, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Justus Liebig University and 19 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical and translational allergy | Year: 2016

The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Insect Venom Allergy. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy.We will undertake a systematic review, which will involve searching international biomedical databases for published, in progress and unpublished evidence. Studies will be independently screened against pre-defined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established instruments. Data will be descriptively and, if possible and appropriate, quantitatively synthesised.The findings from this review will be used to inform the development of recomendations for EAACIs Guidelines on AIT.


PubMed | University of East London, University of Zürich, Medical University of Graz, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and 22 more.
Type: | Journal: Allergy | Year: 2017

The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy.We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were descriptively summarized and, where possible, meta-analysed.Our searches identified a total of 16 950 potentially eligible studies; of which, 17 satisfied our inclusion criteria. The available evidence was limited both in volume and in quality, but suggested that venom immunotherapy (VIT) could substantially reduce the risk of subsequent severe systemic sting reactions (OR = 0.08, 95% CI 0.03-0.26); meta-analysis showed that it also improved disease-specific quality of life (risk difference = 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.79). Adverse effects were experienced in both the build-up and maintenance phases, but most were mild with no fatalities being reported. The very limited evidence found on modelling cost-effectiveness suggested that VIT was likely to be cost-effective in those at high risk of repeated systemic sting reactions and/or impaired quality of life.The limited available evidence suggested that VIT is effective in reducing severe subsequent systemic sting reactions and in improving disease-specific quality of life. VIT proved to be safe and no fatalities were recorded in the studies included in this review. The cost-effectiveness of VIT needs to be established.


PubMed | IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico and University of Colorado at Denver
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research | Year: 2016

We demonstrated that amylo-alpha-1-6-glucosidase-4-alpha-glucanotransferase (AGL) is a tumor growth suppressor and prognostic marker in human bladder cancer. Here we determine how AGL loss enhances tumor growth, hoping to find therapeutically tractable targets/pathways that could be used in patients with low AGL-expressing tumors.We transcriptionally profiled bladder cell lines with different AGL expression. By focusing on transcripts overexpressed as a function of low AGL and associated with adverse clinicopathologic variables in human bladder tumors, we sought to increase the chances of discovering novel therapeutic opportunities.One such transcript was hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS2), an enzyme responsible for hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis. HAS2 expression was inversely proportional to that of AGL in bladder cancer cells and immortalized and normal urothelium. HAS2-driven HA synthesis was enhanced in bladder cancer cells with low AGL, and this drove anchorage-dependent and independent growth. siRNA-mediated depletion of HAS2 or inhibition of HA synthesis by 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) abrogated in vitro and xenograft growth of bladder cancer cells with low AGL. AGL and HAS2 mRNA expression in human tumors was inversely correlated in patient datasets. Patients with high HAS2 and low AGL tumor mRNA expression had poor survival, lending clinical support to xenograft findings that HAS2 drives growth of tumors with low AGL.Our study establishes HAS2-mediated HA synthesis as a driver of growth of bladder cancer with low AGL and provides preclinical rationale for personalized targeting of HAS2/HA signaling in patients with low AGL-expressing tumors.


Pellegrino P.,University of Milan | Carnovale C.,University of Milan | Perrone V.,University of Milan | Pozzi M.,Scientific Institute | And 4 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease affecting over 2.1 million patients worldwide. Patients affected by MS are exposed to an increased risk of infection from communicable diseases, which may lead to severe disease relapses. Studies have analysed the issue of vaccination of MS-affected patients. These studies, however, deal mostly with safety-related issues documenting that most vaccines have been proven to be safe in MS patients and that vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of relapses. By contrast, evidence on the efficacy is comparatively scant and not yet systematised in a comprehensive picture. This aspect is however important, as both MS and its treatment alter the immune responses, a situation that may be associated with a reduced vaccine efficacy. We have now reviewed the literature and assessed the effects of the therapy for MS on vaccine efficacy; we focused on the vaccine against influenza as for the other vaccines the information is still too scant. The majority of drugs appear not associated with a reduced response to vaccination against influenza, with the notable exception of mitoxantrone and glatiramer acetate. For a few drugs, among which natalizumab, information is not sufficiently clear and additional studies are needed to draw a definite conclusion. These results highlight the importance to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination in patients treated with immunosuppressant drugs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Pellegrino P.,University of Milan | Falvella F.S.,University of Milan | Perrone V.,University of Milan | Carnovale C.,University of Milan | And 8 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics Journal | Year: 2015

Until now, the occurrence of adverse reactions among individuals inoculated with identical vaccines has been ascribed to unpredictable stochastic processes. Recent advances in pharmacogenomics indicate that some features of host response to immunisation are influenced by genetic traits, henceforth predictable. The ability to predict the adverse reaction to vaccination would represent an important step towards the development of personalised vaccinology and could enhance public confidence in the safety of vaccines. Herein, we have reviewed all the available information on the association between genetic variants and the risk for healthy subjects to develop adverse reactions.


Pellegrino P.,University of Milan | Carnovale C.,University of Milan | Perrone V.,University of Milan | Pozzi M.,Scientific Institute Irccs E Medea | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective:To evaluate epidemiological features of post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) by considering data from different pharmacovigilance surveillance systems.Methods:The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database and the EudraVigilance post-authorisation module (EVPM) were searched to identify post vaccine ADEM cases. Epidemiological features including sex and related vaccines were analysed.Results:We retrieved 205 and 236 ADEM cases from the EVPM and VAERS databases, respectively, of which 404 were considered for epidemiological analysis following verification and causality assessment. Half of the patients had less than 18 years and with a slight male predominance. The time interval from vaccination to ADEM onset was 2-30 days in 61% of the cases. Vaccine against seasonal flu and human papilloma virus vaccine were those most frequently associated with ADEM, accounting for almost 30% of the total cases. Mean number of reports per year between 2005 and 2012 in VAERS database was 40±21.7, decreasing after 2010 mainly because of a reduction of reports associated with human papilloma virus and Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B vaccines.Conclusions:This study has a high epidemiological power as it is based on information on adverse events having occurred in over one billion people. It suffers from lack of rigorous case verification due to the weakness intrinsic to the surveillance databases used. At variance with previous reports on a prevalence of ADEM in childhood we demonstrate that it may occur at any age when post vaccination. This study also shows that the diminishing trend in post vaccine ADEM reporting related to Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B and human papilloma virus vaccine groups is most likely due to a decline in vaccine coverage indicative of a reduced attention to this adverse drug reaction. © 2013 Pellegrino et al.


Pellegrino P.,University of Milan | Carnovale C.,University of Milan | Pozzi M.,Scientific Institute | Antoniazzi S.,IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico | And 7 more authors.
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccines were introduced to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The bivalent vaccine is effective against HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45 while the quadrivalent vaccine is effective against HPV-16, 18, 31, 6 and 11 types. The immunisation, recommended for adolescent females, has led to high vaccine coverage in many countries.Along with the introduction of the HPV vaccines, several cases of onset or exacerbations of autoimmune diseases following the vaccine shot have been reported in the literature and pharmacovigilance databases, triggering concerns about its safety. This vaccination programme, however, has been introduced in a population that is at high risk for the onset of autoimmune diseases, making it difficult to assess the role of HPV vaccine in these cases and no conclusive studies have been reported thus far.We have thus analysed and reviewed comprehensively all case reports and studies dealing with either the onset of an autoimmune disease in vaccinated subject or the safety in patients with autoimmune diseases to define the role of the HPV vaccines in these diseases and hence its safety. A solid evidence of causal relationship was provided in few cases in the examined studies, and the risk vs. benefit of vaccination is still to be solved. The on-going vigilance for the safety of this vaccine remains thus of paramount importance. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Pellegrino P.,University of Milan | Carnovale C.,University of Milan | Perrone V.,University of Milan | Salvati D.,University of Milan | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Bacterial meningitis is an important source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Data exist on specific vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis indicating that they reduce the incidence of meningitis, yet comprehensive information on the trend of bacterial meningitis is still lacking. We analysed the Kids' Inpatient Database and the National Inpatient Database considering all bacterial meningitides in the United States, excluding cases of tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases. We analysed the trend of meningitis incidence from 1993 to 2011 and in specific age groups before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV-7) and the meningococcal conjugate vaccine 4 (MCV-4). Moreover, we analysed the prevalence of aetiological agents to assess their changes. We estimated 295,706 cases of meningitis having occurred in the United States and a reduction of the discharge rate of 21 %. We observed a significant reduction in cases of meningitis in children and elderly patients following the introduction of the PCV-7. We also found a reduction in subjects aged 10-14 years, an age span consistent with the introduction of MCV-4, although further analyses based on serotypes data are required to confirm this observation. By contrast, we observed an increased prevalence of cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal meningitides. The introduction of PCV-7 has reduced the incidence and changed significantly the aetiology of bacterial meningitis in the United States during the last two decades. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.


PubMed | IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, National Research Council Italy, Scientific Institute and University of Milan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2014

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease affecting over 2.1 million patients worldwide. Patients affected by MS are exposed to an increased risk of infection from communicable diseases, which may lead to severe disease relapses. Studies have analysed the issue of vaccination of MS-affected patients. These studies, however, deal mostly with safety-related issues documenting that most vaccines have been proven to be safe in MS patients and that vaccination is not associated with an increased risk of relapses. By contrast, evidence on the efficacy is comparatively scant and not yet systematised in a comprehensive picture. This aspect is however important, as both MS and its treatment alter the immune responses, a situation that may be associated with a reduced vaccine efficacy. We have now reviewed the literature and assessed the effects of the therapy for MS on vaccine efficacy; we focused on the vaccine against influenza as for the other vaccines the information is still too scant. The majority of drugs appear not associated with a reduced response to vaccination against influenza, with the notable exception of mitoxantrone and glatiramer acetate. For a few drugs, among which natalizumab, information is not sufficiently clear and additional studies are needed to draw a definite conclusion. These results highlight the importance to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination in patients treated with immunosuppressant drugs.


PubMed | IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, National Research Council Italy, Scientific Institute and University of Milan
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The pharmacogenomics journal | Year: 2015

Until now, the occurrence of adverse reactions among individuals inoculated with identical vaccines has been ascribed to unpredictable stochastic processes. Recent advances in pharmacogenomics indicate that some features of host response to immunisation are influenced by genetic traits, henceforth predictable. The ability to predict the adverse reaction to vaccination would represent an important step towards the development of personalised vaccinology and could enhance public confidence in the safety of vaccines. Herein, we have reviewed all the available information on the association between genetic variants and the risk for healthy subjects to develop adverse reactions.

Loading IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico collaborators
Loading IRCCS Foundation Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico collaborators