Baghdad, Iraq
Baghdad, Iraq

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Ali S.M.,University of Baghdad | Al-Tawash B.S.,University of Baghdad | Al-Bassam K.S.,Iraq Geological Survey
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2014

Baghdad City is characterized by high population density and wide variation in land use. It is covered by Quaternary flood plain deposits of variable nature where silt is the predominant component. The shallow aquifer is unconfined to semi-confined at some locations. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer are highly variable in the study area. A study of this groundwater shallow aquifer and the hydrochemical relation with the Tigris River were conducted using geochemical modeling approach. Baghdad Meteoric Water Line (BMWL) was also constructed using data of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrochemical parameters of the Tigris River show significant differences at high and low flow conditions, and there are clear difference among the selected stations. Groundwater parameters show also significant spatial and temporal variations in major and minor elements concentrations. Geochemical modeling results indicate that dissolution of dolomite, gypsum, chlorite, siderite, chalcedony, cation exchange of Ca2+/Na+ and precipitation of calcite, illite, kaolinite, and hematite are the main chemical reactions in the Rasafa side, whereas no specific reactions can be shown in the Karkh side. Mixing models of the shallow groundwater and Tigris River water show various patterns affected by other factors such as the aquifer recharge and evaporation, especially at the most shallow parts. The BMWL has been defined by the equation δ2H = 8.6 δ18O + 17.48 and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen reveal different signatures in the Karkh and Rasafa sides, where clear zonation at Rasafa can be observed. We conclude that recharge water undergoes significant evaporation through its transit to the aquifer. © 2013 Saudi Society for Geosciences.


Khalaf S.Z.,University of Baghdad | Yassin A.T.,Iraq Geological Survey | Awadh S.M.,University of Baghdad | Jassim R.Z.,Toyota Central R&D Labs.
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2015

Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to determine the chemistry and mineral components of Ellicott meteorite. Mineral phases and interstitial matrix in the meteorite slab were detected using backscattered electron mode (BSE) and scanning electron microprobe (SEM) and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS and Raman shift analyses of mineral phases showed that Ellicott meteorite is characterized by the predominance of Fe-rich (Fe, Ni) alloy kamacite and Ni-Co-rich magnetite. The Iron-nickel phosphide minerals that are called schreibersite and rhabdites along with rare gold have been detected within the kamacite groundmass of meteorite. The presence of Neumann lines, which appear as fine parallel lines running in (up to) four directions, indicates impact with another body. These lines are caused by twinning due to the postconsolidation compression. The chemistry, particularly the lesser content of Ni and texture of unusual abundance ribbons of the iron-phosphide rhabdites and schreibersite where the Widmanstatten texture disappears after the etching by nitric acid, suggests that the Ellicott meteorite is an iron meteorite, hexahedrite type, IIG group. © 2014, Saudi Society for Geosciences.


Issa A.H.,University of Technology, Iraq | Ghayyib S.M.,Iraq Geological Survey | Ezzulddin A.S.,University of Technology, Iraq
AEU - International Journal of Electronics and Communications | Year: 2014

In this work, a 2.4 GHz differential pair Class-E PA with two ideal RF power transformers is designed and simulated for Bluetooth systems, in a 0.13 μm CMOS process. This design is proposed to mitigate the voltage stress on each active CMOS device; hereby it prevents the device from breaking down. The PA provides output power of 22.83 dBm, power gain of 17.83 dB, and 31.13% PAE at 2.4 GHz with 1V. The ideal power transformers are replaced with their on-chip power transformers. On-chip power transformers (power divider and power combiner) are designed and improved, in order to realize a fully integrated Bluetooth PA. © 2014 Elsevier GmbH.


Al-Saady Y.I.,University of Baghdad | Al-Suhail Q.A.,University of Basrah | Al-Tawash B.S.,University of Baghdad | Othman A.A.,Iraq Geological Survey | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

The Lesser Zab River, in the northeast of Iraq and northwest of Iran, is the largest tributary inside Iraq supplying water to the Tigris River. The majority of the basin lies inside Iraq. The important goals of this study are to estimate the erodibility and flash flood hazard of the Lesser Zab River Basin (LZRB). The present research highlights sub-basins that should be prioritized for conservation and flood risk schemes. The morphometric analysis reveals that the most important sub-basins are Sb1 and Sb2, in terms of water contribution to the main river. They are characterized by higher stream order, larger area, high elevation, low drainage density, low drainage texture, and low relative relief. Because of the relatively high relief in the upper part of the LZRB, the sub-basins are characterized by low drainage density, which indicates more surface runoff compared to the main basin in the lower part. The very fine drainage texture in the upper part of the LZRB reflects low infiltration and higher runoff relative to the lower part. The sub-basins in the upper part of the LZRB, which have a low bifurcation ratio, produce flood hydrographs with marked discharge peaks, while the sub-basins in the lower part, which have high ratios, produce low peaks over a long time period. Various morphometric parameters have been used for each sub-basin to calculate compound parameters for the final ranking of the sub-basins. Based on utilization of morphometric parameters for the erodibility hazard assessment, sub-basins were divided into seven prioritization classes: critical, very high to critical, high to very high, medium to high, low to medium, very low to low, and lowest. Furthermore, the resultant hazard map indicates that 18 sub-basins have moderate to low risk of flash flooding and 29 sub-basins have low possibility of flash flooding. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Othman A.A.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg | Al-Saady Y.I.,Iraq Geological Survey | Al-Saady Y.I.,University of Baghdad | Al-Khafaji A.K.,University of Baghdad | Gloaguen R.,TU Bergakademie Freiberg
Arabian Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2014

This study aims to assess the potential of several ancillary input data for the improvement of unsupervised land cover change detection in arid environments. The study area is located in Central Iraq where desertification has been observed. We develop a new scheme based on known robust indices. We employ Landsat (multispectral scanner, thematic mapper, and enhanced thematic mapper) satellite data acquired in 1976, 1990, and 2002. We use the Normalized Deferential Vegetation Index, Normalized Differential Water Index (NDWI), Salinity Index (SI), and Eolian Mapping Index. Two new equations were applied for the SI and the NDWI indices. Validation was performed using ground truth data collected in 16 days. We show that such an approach allows a robust and low-cost alternative for preliminary and large-scale assessments. This study shows that desertification has increased in the study area since 1990. © 2013 Saudi Society for Geosciences.


Sissakian V.K.,Iraq Geological Survey
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2013

The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism.The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep.The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks.The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8. km, in the west to 14. km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast.The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend.The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5. km. The sequence forms the main source and reservoir rocks in the central and southern parts of Iraq. The Cenozoic sequence consists of Paleogene open marine carbonates, which grades upwards into Neogene lagoonal marine; of Early Miocene and evaporitic rocks; of Middle Miocene age, followed by thick molasses of continental clastics that attain 3500. m in thickness; starting from Late Miocene. The Quaternary sediments are very well developed in the Mesopotamia Plain and they thicken southwards to reach about 180. m near Basra city; in the extreme southeastern part of Iraq.The Iraqi Inner Platform (stable shelf) is a part of the Arabian Plate, being less affected by tectonic disturbances; it covers the area due to south and west of the Euphrates River. The main tectonic feature in this zone that had affected on the geology of the area is the Rutbah Uplift; with less extent is the Ga'ara High.The oldest exposed rocks within the Inner Platform belong to Ga'ara Formation of Permian age; it is exposed only in the Ga'ara Depression. The Permian rocks are overlain by Late Triassic rocks; represented by Mulussa and Zor Hauran formations, both of marine carbonates with marl intercalations. The whole Triassic rocks are absent west, north and east of Ga'ara Depression. Jurassic rocks, represented by five sedimentary cycles, overlie the Triassic rocks. Each cycle consists of clastic rocks overlain by carbonates, being all of marine sediments; whereas the last one (Late Jurassic) consists of marine carbonates only. All the five formations are separated from each other by unconformable contacts. Cretaceous rocks, represented by seven sedimentary cycles, overlie the Jurassic rocks. Marine clastics overlain by marine carbonates. Followed upwards (Late Cretaceous) by continental clastics overlain by marine carbonates; then followed by marine carbonates with marl intercalations, and finally by marine clastics overlain by carbonates; representing the last three cycles, respectively.The Paleocene rocks form narrow belt west of the Ga'ara Depression, represented by Early-Late Paleocene phosphatic facies, which is well developed east of Rutbah Uplift and extends eastwards in the Foredeep. Eocene rocks; west of Rutbah Uplift are represented by marine carbonates that has wide aerial coverage in south Iraq. Locally, east of Rutbah Uplift unconformable contacts are recorded between Early, Middle and Late Eocene rocks. During Oligocene, in the eastern margin of the Inner Platform, the Outer Platform was uplifted causing very narrow depositional Oligocene basin. Therefore, very restricted exposures are present in the northern part of the Inner Platform (north of Ga'ara Depression), represented by reef, forereef sediments of some Oligocene formations.The Miocene rocks have no exposures west of Rutbah Uplift, but north and northwestwards are widely exposed represented by Early Miocene of marine carbonates with marl intercalations. Very locally, Early Miocene deltaic clastics and carbonates, are interfingering with the marine carbonates. The last marine open sea sediments, locally with reef, represent the Middle Miocene rocks and fore reef facies that interfingers with evaporates along the northern part of Abu Jir Fault Zone, which is believed to be the reason for the restriction of the closed lagoons; in the area.During Late Miocene, the continental phase started in Iraq due to the closure of the Neo-Tethys and collision of the Sanandaj Zone with the Arabian Plate. The continental sediments consist of fine clastics. The Late Miocene - Middle Pliocene sediments were not deposited in the Inner Platform.The Pliocene-Pleistocene sediments are represented by cyclic sediments of conglomeratic sandstone overlain by fresh water limestone, and by pebbly sandstone.The Quaternary sediments are poorly developed in the Inner Platform. Terraces of Euphrates River and those of main valleys represent pleistocene sediments. Flood plain of the Euphrates River and those of large valleys represent Holocene sediments. Residual soil is developed, widely in the western part of Iraq, within the western marginal part of the Inner Platform. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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