Irans Pistachio Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran

Irans Pistachio Research Institute

Rafsanjān, Iran
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Kamiab F.,Islamic Azad University | Talaie A.,University of Tehran | Khezri M.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Javanshah A.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2014

The protective effects of free polyamines (PAs) against salinity stress were investigated for pistachio seedlings (Pistacia vera cv. Badami-Zarand) in a controlled greenhouse. Seedlings were treated with 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM of salts including NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2. Foliar treatments of putrescine, spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) (0.1 and 1 mM) were applied during the salinity period. Results showed that growth characteristics of pistachio seedlings decreased under salinity stress and the application of PAs efficiently reduced the adverse effects of salt stress. PAs reduced the severe effects of salt stress in pistachio seedlings neither by increasing the activities of peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase nor by increasing the proline content but by increasing the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and decreasing the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activity. PAs treated seedlings showed a lower Na+:K+ ratio and Cl- in leaves suggesting the role of PAs in balancing the ion exchange and better Na+:K+ discrimination under salt stress condition. These results showed the promising potential use of PAs especially Spm and Spd for reducing the negative effects of salinity stress and improving the growth of pistachio seedlings. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Panahi B.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute | Khezri M.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The appropriate time of harvest is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of pistachio. Cultivars 'Ahmad-Aghaii', 'Kaleh-Ghoochi', 'Ohadi' and 'Badami-Zarand' were evaluated for qualitative indices of nut over a period of four years from 2001 to 2004. Nut samples were collected during eight successive weeks from 23 August to 11 October. Splitting, early splitting, hull cracking and hulling percentage continually increased toward the last harvest week while non-splitting, immaturity, number of nuts per ounce and moisture content decreased during the harvest weeks. The increment of splitting and the number of nuts per ounce was not significant from 20 September to the last week of harvest. Early splitting, hull cracking and aflatoxin contamination of kernel progressively increased from 13 September. Total crude fat and sugar contents showed a peak in the middle of September. The concentration of aflatoxins prior or at maturity stage of selected cultivars was lower than the critical level. In general, the appropriate time of harvest for the cultivars studied is the middle of September to avoid contamination of nuts to aflatoxin and to ensure the nut quality. This study emphasizes different quality indices for determining the optimum harvest time of pistachio crop. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Afrousheh M.,University of Tehran | Ardalan M.,University of Tehran | Hokmabadi H.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute | Afrousheh M.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

This study examines the effects of nitrogen (N), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and molybdenum (Mo) deficiencies on the eco-physiological, biochemical and growth characteristics of pistachio seedlings (Pistacia vera) in sand culture situation. This experiment, which was carried out in Iran's Pistachio Research Institute (IPRI), seedlings of 'Badami-e-Zarand' were used as common rootstock. The following treatments were employed: (1) complete Hoagland's nutrient solution; nutrient solution lacking either: (2) N, (3) Fe, (4) Mg, (5) Mn, (6) Mo, (7) distilled water without Hoagland's solution (Control), (8) Fe-N, (9) Fe-Mn and (10) Fe-Mo. The main deficiency symptoms observed after 7 months of planting were; leaf discoloration, necrosis, scorching, defoliation and stunted growth. Seedlings that received complete nutrient solution were healthy with dark green foliage. Visual symptoms of N-deficient seedlings also coincided with the reduction in foliar levels of the concerned element. Shoot and root growth of the seedlings deficient in nutrients were also affected. Changes in shoot and root biomasses production due to treatments were statistically significant at 1% level. A reduction in height, leaf area and leaf number was noticed for various levels of nutrient element deficiencies. Analysis of some biochemical indices (chlorophyll content) and eco-physiological indices such as primary florescence chlorophyll (Fo), ratio of variable chlorophyll to maximum (Fv/Fm), leaf temperature, transpiration, stomata conduction and resistance of stomata, showed that fractions of chlorophyll, transpiration, stomata conduction and resistant of stomata in treated seedlings, particularly N-deficient seedlings, declined significantly. Chlorophyll (Fo) and ratio of variable chlorophyll to maximum (Fv/Fm) were significant at 5% level. The effects of Fe, Mn, Mg and Mo on dry matter production were statistically significant at 1% level. Synergic effects of certain elements were also evident in the present study. The typical symptoms of deficiencies of various nutrient elements can be used as a guideline for diagnosing nutrient deficiencies of pistachio in commercial nurseries and plantations. The present study also showed multi-deficiency of nutrients, produces new symptom in leaves, which differs from single deficiencies. Crown Copyright © 2009.

Sedaghati N.,Damghans Pistachio Research Station | Hokmabadi H.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2015

In this research, some of the echo-physiological characteristics of pistachio trees were studied to understand crop response to drought stress and determine the best irrigation interval. This experiment was carried out in an orchard with a sandy loam textured soil and a commercial cultivar of pistachio named Ouhadi grafted on Pistacia vera L. rootstock for three years. The irrigation system selected was surface flooding with intervals of 30, 50, 80, and 110 days. These intervals were chosen so as to resemble common irrigation intervals of pistachio orchards in the region. This enabled a comparison between the best and worst conditions of trees in respect to drought stress. Total irrigation water received was a constant depth of water to all treatments. Quantitative and qualitative yield such as weight of fresh and dry nuts, percent of blank and split nuts, and number of nuts per ounce, vegetative and echo-physiological characteristics were considered and measured. In terms of yield quantity and quality, the results showed vegetative and echo-physiological attributes to be significantly different between the treatments of 30, 80 and 110 days irrigation intervals. This means that with an increase in irrigation intervals and considering soil water holding capacity, soils were not able to provide enough moisture for the plant to carry out its normal metabolic activities. However, in the prolonged irrigation intervals, there were not much differences between treatments i.e. the pistachio tree could adapt itself to the naturally occurring environmental stress conditions. © 2015, Tarbiat Modares University. All rights reserved.

Moghadam M.M.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute | Hokmabadi H.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2010

In order to evaluate the effect of testa (pistachio seed coat) on reduction of fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production, ten cultivars of pistachio were collected from different parts of the pistachio production area (i.e. Rafsanjan, Damghan and Ghazvin provinces in Iran). One section of the testa and 1 mm of endosperm were scraped, then 20 g of wounded kernels and 20 g of unwounded kernels were surface sterilized and placed on Petri-dishes separately (completely randomized design in 3 replications). 1 ml of the spore suspension of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus added to each Petri-dish (spore suspension adjusted to contain of 2×106 spore/ml). The plates placed over water in plastic boxes and then placed inside an incubator at 26°C. After 2.5, 5 and 8 days of inoculation, growth rate and colonization of A. flavus on wounded and unwounded pistachio kernels measured in different cultivars. In addition, aflatoxin content of inoculated kernels extracted by BF method and estimated by TLC and densitometer. The average percentage of A. flavus growth on the surface of wounded and unwounded kernels compared with t-student test. Results of this research indicated a significant difference in fungus growth rate and aflatoxin B1 production between wounded and unwounded kernels of pistachio cultivars. In other words, testa in unwounded kernels could be considered as a resistant barrier against the penetration of fungus into kernels, reducing A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production as compared with wounded kernels.

Javanshah A.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

In order to the determine the low-temperature development threshold and forecasting of harvesting time by the degree-hour on 'Owhadi' cultivar this research was done in Iran's pistachio research institute. First cuttings of 'Owhadi' cultivar were taken in January and for overcoming chilling requirement they kept in 4°C for 900 hours. Then cuttings were divided in five groups, and each group was put in different incubators with 13, 16, 19, 22 and 25°C, respectively. Growth ratio was calculated by the time of swollen to bud opening (50%), then low-temperature development threshold was determined by regression analysis. To determine fruit ripening time, sampling was done every two days from 5 August and ripening percentage (hull removing and percent of open shell) measured and determined best harvesting time when 50% of fruits ripped. Based on the lowtemperature development threshold, effective degree-hours were calculated from March. Model of harvest time forecasting was determined by study on temperature of nine years (1992 to 1997 and 2006 to 2008) in Rafsanjan city and calculating of degreehours based on the low-temperature development threshold. Results showed the lowtemperature development threshold in pistachio is 5.2°C. Study on temperature data indicated in order to 50% fruit ripening; 'Owhadi' cultivar needs 4280 degree-hours. Based on calculating and analysis of data the following model resulted: Total degreehours=1.01 (degree-hour of March) + 0.91 (degree-hour of April) + 5.06 (degree-hour of May) + 1.49 (mean temperature of March) - 0.772 (mean temperature of April).

Sedaghat R.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

Supply, demand and price forecasting can provide an appropriate context for long running programming of production and exports. Pistachio is the main agricultural produce that Iran is competing with some other producing nations very closely in its production and exports. With regards to the importance of long running programming for pistachio and to avoid any short run decisions, in this research, world price, supply and demand were forecasted for Pistachio from 2006 till 2015. Data on concerned variables during 1986-2005 were collected by visiting governmental organizations and institutions like management and programming organization, agricultural and commercial data sources and also registered data in FAOSAT. Regression, algebraic average, forecasting with supply and demand factors and ARIMA methods were employed to analyze the data collected. Results revealed that the average world export demand will be promoted by 12.5 percent from the first to the second period. Average world supply also will be increased by 36.7 percent at the same time period. Domestic consumption in producing countries will be also increased by 74.4 percent from the first to the second time period. Average world market price will be enhanced with the growth rate of 52.5 percent in the similar time period. Lastly, it is indicated that any new investment in producing nations can be economical if yield doesn't decrease/remain stable and production costs increase with the rate of less than 52.5 percent from the first period to the second one.

Tajabadipour A.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute | Sheibani Tezerji Z.,Islamic Azad University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Separation of aflatoxin-contaminated pistachio in orchards is one of the most important functions of processing. Removal of pistachio nuts with high aflatoxin contamination by sorting during processing caused a decrease in contamination of processed pistachios compared to non-processed pistachios. In this research, the efficiency of small separator machines in order to separate contaminated pistachios in orchard was evaluated. To predict aflatoxin contamination, 'Owhadi' pistachio was harvested in three replications in suitable time of harvest. After dehulling, washing and pre-drying, small pistachio nuts were separated by small separator machines. Aflatoxin content in small and normal sized pistachios was measured by HPLC method. Results showed that there was positive correlation between the nut size and aflatoxin contamination. Around 77.1% of small pistachios were contaminated with aflatoxin, whereas 28.8% of aflatoxin contamination existed in normal size pistachios. It is due to the fact that almost all early split pistachios are smaller than other pistachios.

Sherafati A.,Khorasan Razavi Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center | Hokmabadi H.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute | Abbaspour H.,Islamic Azad University at Dāmghān
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Khorasan province (North-East of Iran) with more than 50000 hectares pistachio orchards is one of the greatest producer areas of pistachio in Iran. The main challenge for the export of Iranian pistachios is aflatoxin contamination. According to studies, early splitting and irregular cracking hull in the pistachio orchards are the most important factors making the pistachio susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. This study was done on 12 pistachio cultivars named: 'Badami sefid', 'Barg seyah', 'Pesteh gharmez', 'Pesteh garmeh', 'Daneshmandi', 'Abasali', 'Khanjari', 'Shahpasand', 'Owhadi', 'Kale ghochi', 'Akbari', and 'Momtaz', for 4 years (2007-2010), based on randomized complete block design with three replication in pistachio research station in Khorasan Razavi province. 'Shahpasand' cultivar with 14.8% had the most early splitting and there was significant difference (p<0.01) with other cultivars. 'Owhadi' and 'Akbari' cultivars had 2.7 and 1.7% early splitting respectively. The lowest percentage of early splitting was observed 0, 0.1 and 0.2% in three cultivars; 'Pesteh garmeh', 'Badami sefid' and 'Abasali', respectively. The highest percentage of irregular cracking hulls was obtained in 'Khanjari'.

Khezri M.,University of Tehran | Talaie A.,University of Tehran | Javanshah A.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute | Hadavi F.,Irans Pistachio Research Institute
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Pistachio trees exhibit some physiological disorders such as abscission of inflorescence buds, fruit abscission, the production of blank, non-split, early-split and deformed nuts. Since the occurrence of these disorders is closely related to the yield, the effect of free polyamine treatments on these disorders and the yield was investigated in two consecutive years ("on" and "off" years). Free polyamine treatments were applied one week before and also two weeks after full bloom. Results showed that Spermine (Spm), unlike Putrescine (Put), decreased the physiological disorders of pistachio and also increased the yield. Free polyamine treatments did not affect the percentage of early-split nuts. Spermidine (Spd) decreased the percentage of both fruit abscission and deformed nuts but did not affect the yield. In both the "on" and "off" years the effect of Spm and Spd was greatly dependent on both the time of application and the concentrations used. Results of free polyamine analysis showed that exogenous application of these compounds, especially two weeks after full bloom, increased the free polyamine contents of shoots in both "on" and "off" years confirming the absorption of free polyamines via spray application in pistachio crop. Exogenous application of Spm two weeks after full bloom decreased the abscission of inflorescence buds in "on" year supporting the idea that free polyamines could trigger the abscission process of inflorescence buds. Since Spm decreased the percentage of blank, non-split and deformed nuts, it seems that Spm dominantly plays a key role in the growth and development of pistachio nuts. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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