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Khosravi A.R.,University of Tehran | Shokri H.,Modern Medicine | Eshghi S.,Iranian Veterinary Organization
Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences | Year: 2017

Objective(s): Systemic candidiasis is an infection of Candida albicans (C. albicans) causing disseminated disease and sepsis, invariably when host defenses are compromised. We investigated the histopathological changes as well as the lymphoproliferative responses and cytokine production of splenic cells after stimulation with Concanavalin A (Con A) and Pokeweed mitogen (PWM) in mice with disseminated candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Lymphoproliferative responses were stimulated in vitro with Con A (1 µg/ml) and PWM (1 µg/ml) mitogens in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) 1640 media, and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4) in the supernatants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The results revealed that C. albicans organisms multiplied to a greater extent in the kidneys than in the liver and spleen of infected mice. The most predominant forms of C. albicans in different parts of the kidneys were yeast mixed with hyphal forms. Infected mice had a significantly increased proliferative response when splenocytes were stimulated with PWM (2.0±0.16) and Con A (1.9±0.19) (P<0.05). PWM and Con A-stimulated production of IFN-γ significantly tended to be higher in infected mice (PWM: 68.4±14.0 pg/ml; Con A: 53.7±17.3 pg/ml) when compared to controls (P<0.05). Stimulation with PWM and Con A showed no differences in IL-4 production between infected mice and controls. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a significant increase in both cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion in supernatants of PWM and Con A- stimulated splenocyte cultures obtained from mice with disseminated candidiasis. © 2017, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.


Torabi S.,Iranian Veterinary Organization
Journal of Food Safety | Year: 2016

The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition, fungal and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contaminations in raw camel milk samples collected from seven dairy farms in Yazd province, Iran. Milk samples (10 samples from each of 7 farms) were collected in autumn and winter seasons. The mean contents of protein, fat and ash ranged from 2.14 to 3.28%, 1.52 to 2.01%, and 0.93 to 0.97%, respectively. Of the fungal agents identified, yeasts belonged to Candida spp. (48.2%), Rhodotorula spp. (22.3%) and Trichosporon spp. (13.4%); and moulds belonged to Geotrichum spp. (16.1%). Of the 70 milk samples, 20 (28.6%) samples had AFM1 in concentrations in excess of the maximum levels specified in European Union (EU) regulations, that is, 50 ng/L. The mean concentration of AFM1 in milk samples was 45.95 ng/L, and the minimum and maximum levels were 5.19 and 150.17 ng/L, respectively. The mean concentrations of AFM1 in winter and autumn months were 54.24 and 34.92 ng/L, respectively (p<.05). As contamination of milk with fungi and AFM1 is a potential risk for human health, raw camel milk should be monitored for their presence. Practical applications: Having an idea of fungal load and AFM1 contamination in raw camel milk could be used by food safety organizations to establish regulations for the control of contamination sources. In Iran, there is no study about the incidence of fungal and AFM1 contaminations in raw camel milk. Our study is the first one in Yazd province, Iran. In the current study, Candida species were the most predominant yeasts in raw camel milk. The mean AFM1 contamination was 45.95±49.50 ng/L, representing 28.6% samples exceeded the EU accepted limit (50 ng/L). Therefore, feed hygiene control is the first step in preventing the transfer of aflatoxins to human; and continuous monitoring of dairy products will be necessary for evaluation of hygienic managements. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Sattari A.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Asli M.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Mansoori F.S.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Kheirandish R.,Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman | Yavari H.,Iranian Veterinary Organization
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2012

Objective: This study investigates the histology of the middle layer of the eye in rabbit fish Siganus javus. Methods: The eyes of twelve healthy fish were enucleated and histologic sections of 6μ were prepared. The sections were stained with Hematoxyline & Eosine (H&E) and Masson trichrom then were observed using light microscopy. Results: The middle or vascular layer consisted of the choroid and iris. The result revealed that the choroid coat was subdivided into five laminae: 1. Suprachoroid layer 2. Substina propria included choroidal gland or retemirabile, melanoid layers and connective tissue 3. Fibrouse layer 4. Choriocapillary layer 5. Separator layer. The extension of the choroid coat into the anterior compartment made the iris which mainly composed of connective tissue, blood vessels, melanocyte and a smooth muscle at the posterior part of the iris, adjacent to the pupil. The choroid coat did not continue rostrally adjacent to the cornea. Suspensory apparatus of the lens of the Siganus javus eye consisted of a dorsal suspensory ligament and a ventral retractor muscle. Conclusions: The diversity and deviation in the detail of microscopic structures in the eye of teleosts is approved through this microscopic study in middle layer of rabbit fish eye however the five differentiated parts of choroid were distinguished as in many telelost species. © 2012 Asian Pacific Tropical Biomedical Magazine.


Khosravi A.R.,University of Tehran | Shokri H.,Amol University of Special Modern Technologies | Eshghi S.,Iranian Veterinary Organization | Darvishi S.,University of Tehran
Food Security | Year: 2013

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is an hydroxylated derivative of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which occurs in the milk of lactating animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentrations of AFM1 in raw milk samples collected from 18 dairy farms in Qazvin, Iran, over a period of 1 year and compare them with those found in other countries. Samples (30 per farm) were collected in the four seasons, Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter occurring between April 2009 and March 2010, giving a total of 2160 samples. They were centrifuged and 100 μl of the resulting skimmed milk were tested for AFM1 contamination by competitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA). All samples (100 %) were contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 148.01 ng.l-1 and a mean of 38.82 ng.l-1. Summer samples with a mean of 64.69 ng.l-1 and autumn samples with a mean of 0.14 ng.l-1 had the highest and lowest concentrations, respectively, and differed significantly (P < 0.05). AFM1 content in 722 samples (33.4 %) was higher than the maximum tolerance limit of 50 ng.l-1 accepted by the European Union (EU). As contamination of milk with AFM1 is a potential risk for human health, raw milk should be monitored for its presence. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology.


Saadat Y.,Bushehr Veterinary Organization | Ghafouri S.A.,Iranian Veterinary Organization | Tehrani F.,Iranian Veterinary Organization | Langeroudi A.G.,University of Tehran
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To test the antibodies against newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV, H9N2) in the unvaccinated backyard poultry in Bushehr province, Iran from 2012 to 2013. Methods: A total of 1 530 blood samples from unvaccinated backyard chickens in Bushehr province, south of Iran, were tested for antibodies against NDV and AIV (H9N2) by hemagglutination inhibition test according to International Epizootic Office (OIE) recommendation. Results: Of these, 614 (40.13%) and 595 (39.00%) were positive for NDV and AIV (H9N2) respectively. Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicated that NDV and AIV (H9N2) were endemic and widely distributed in backyard areas of Bushehr province which should be incorporated in the control strategies. Further studies are needed to identify the circulating virus genotypes, model their transmission risk, provide adapted control measures and design proper and applicable vaccination program. © 2014 by the Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine.


PubMed | Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iranian Veterinary Organization and University of Tehran
Type: | Journal: Virus genes | Year: 2016

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype have been diversified into multiple phylogenetic clades over the past decade and are highly genetically variable. In June 2015, one outbreak of HPAI H5N1 in backyard chickens was reported in the Nogardan village of the Mazandaran Province. Tracheal tissues were taken from the dead domestic chickens (n=10) and processed for RT-PCR. The positive samples (n=10) were characterized as HPAI H5N1 by sequencing analysis for the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the samples revealed that the viruses belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c, and cluster with the HPAI H5N1 viruses isolated from different avian species in Bulgaria, Romania, and Nigeria in 2015. They were not closely related to other H5N1 isolates detected in previous years in Iran. Our study provides new insights into the evolution and genesis of H5N1 influenza in Iran and has important implications for targeting surveillance efforts to rapidly identify the spread of the virus into and within Iran.


PubMed | Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iranian veterinary Organization and University of Tehran
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2016

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a viral avian disease with economic importance in the world, including Iran. S1 gene sequencing has been used for molecular epidemiological studies and genotypic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). A total of 118 IBV isolates were obtained from tissue samples from chickens with clinically suspected IB from Iranian broiler farms (eight provinces, 200 samples). The isolates were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characterized by sequencing the spike glycoprotein gene. The isolates formed six distinct phylogenetic groups (IS/1494/06 [Var2] like, 4/91-like, IS/720-like, QX-like, IR-1 and Mass-like) that were related to variants isolated in the region. The most frequently detected viruses were of the Var2-like (IS/1494/06-like) genotype, with an overall prevalence of 34 %. Twenty-one percent of the isolates formed a cluster together with the 4/91 IBV type, 10% were of the QX genotype, and 8 % were of the IS/720 genotype. In addition, 4 % and 3 % of the isolates belonged to the Massachusetts and IR-1 genotype, respectively. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized IBV variants from broiler farms in different provinces of Iran. This study demonstrates a constant evolution of IBV in Iran, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring and development of new vaccines based on indigenous viruses.


Bakhshesh M.,Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute | Abdollahi D.,Iranian Veterinary Organization
Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Bovine ephemeral fever (BEFV) is an arthropod-borne disease of cattle and water buffaloes. BEFV occurs seasonally in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. It has been known for the past decades in Iran based on clinical signs but lack of an accurate diagnosis has made the real feature of disease obscured. This is the first scientific report on isolation and identification of the agent in which molecular diagnosis of BEFV was also set up with high sensitivity and specificity. Methods: The viral agent was successfully isolated through serial passages in brain of suckling mice and cell culture. In addition, the circulating virus during the autumn 2012 in Iran was molecularly characterized based on partial G gene. Results: Alignment of 3 virus sequences from different parts of Iran revealed that they are identical suggesting that the circulating viruses were most likely the same in this period. Phylogenetic analysis of the Iranian sequences with 17 sequences in the GenBank from the world showed that it is identical to the virus circulated in Turkey during the same period suggesting that the virus was circulated in a large geographic region. Conclusion: These results offer primary information about BEFV in Iran. To better understanding the epidemiology of the virus, further studies based on seroepidemiology, molecular epidemiology, entomology and meteorology together with finding the model of animal transportation in the region are necessary.


Khaniki G.R.J.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Raei M.,Iranian Veterinary Organization | Kia E.B.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Haghi A.M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Selseleh M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2010

Bovine cysticercosis is an important food safety issue and can cause economic loss. A cross sectional study on Taenia saginata cysticercosis was carried out in slaughtered cattle in Iran in order to determine the infection rate during a three-years period, from 2005 to 2007. A total of 4,534,105 cattle were examined by routine meat inspection. The results showed that 11,410 cattle (0.25 %) were infected with Cysticercus bovis; among those 1,041 carcasses (0.02%) were condemned. In such carcasses the metacestodes caused extensive damage in the vicinity of cysts in infected cattle. The rejected carcasses had an average of 410 thousands USD loss annually. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


PubMed | Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute and Iranian Veterinary Organization
Type: | Journal: International journal of mycobacteriology | Year: 2017

Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important zoonotic disease that is caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Eradication efforts in developed countries have reduced the prevalence of this disease significantly. TB can be difficult to diagnose based only on the clinical signs; therefore, it is usually diagnosed in the field with the tuberculin skin test and diagnostic blood tests, including the lymphocyte proliferation assay, the interferon (IFN)- assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The aim of this study was to compare the tuberculin and IFN- tests. A total of 110 animals were evaluated by tuberculin skin test (TST) and IFN- assay; the culture was selected as a gold standard. The animals were selected randomly from 700 cattle on dairy farms, aged 3-5years and suspected of having TB. Ten cattle were positive using the TST and nine were positive by IFN- assay. All nine positive samples in the IFN- assay were positive in culture too. The observed errors in IFN- assay were less due to laboratorial tools. It is suggested that all positive samples in TST are also positive by IFN- too.

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