Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP

Tehrān, Iran

Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP

Tehrān, Iran
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Farzadfar S.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Pourrahim R.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP
Australasian Plant Disease Notes | Year: 2017

Symptomatic alfalfa leaf samples were collected from Western Iran. RT-PCR was performed using degenerate primers resulting in amplification of a fragment approximately 600 bp in size corresponding to the coat protein (CP) gene of luteoviruses. BLAST analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences revealed the highest similarity (96–97%) with Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) isolates. The present study shows for the first time the occurrence of TuYV in Iran. © 2017, Australasian Plant Pathology Society Inc.

Farzadfar S.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Pourrahim R.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP
Plant Disease | Year: 2017

Turnip mosaic virus-TuMV (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) (Adams et al. 2012) is one of the most common and important plant viruses due to its wide distribution and the losses it causes in different crops, including brassicas. For example, internal necrosis of postharvest white cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L. alba DC.) has been correlated with the presence and severity of field symptoms of TuMV. This usually results in the loss of large quantities of stored cabbage (Walkey and Webb 1978). The genome has a single open reading frame (ORF) ∼10,000 nt long flanked by a viral protein genome-linked (VPg) and a polyadenylate tract in the 5′ and 3′ termini, respectively (Adams et al. 2012). TuMV isolates are grouped into four pathotypes: [BR], isolates infecting both Brassica and Raphanus plants systemically; [B(R)], isolates infecting Brassica systemically and extensively but Raphanus latently and occasionally; [B], isolates infecting most Brassica systemically but unable to infect Raphanus; and [(B)], isolates infecting Brassica latently and occasionally but unable to infect Raphanus. Also, phylogenetic analysis showed four major TuMV genogroups including Basal-Brassica (Basal-B), Basal-Brassica/Raphanus (Basal-BR), Asian-Brassica/Raphanus (Asian-BR), and world-Brassica (world-B). In late May 2016, seven Alliaria petiolata plants showing virus symptoms, including diffuse mottling and mosaic, were collected from Tehran Province. After serial cloning by single local lesion isolation on Chenopodium quinoa, each isolate was propagated in turnip (B. rapa). Then the isolates were inoculated onto some cultivars of turnip and radish and the host-infecting types of each isolate were evaluated. The collected leaf samples and inoculated plants were tested for TuMV by DAS-ELISA using specific polyclonal antibodies purchased from Loewe (Sauerlach, Germany). Absorbance at 405 nm (A405nm) was recorded using a micro plate reader, 1 h after the addition of the substrate. A reaction was considered positive if the absorbance exceeded 3× the mean value of the negative control (0.097). The mean absorbance of the positive control was 1.412. ELISA confirmed the presence of TuMV in both the original weed leaf samples and inoculated indicator plants, including turnip and radish plants. The A. petiolata TuMV isolate fell into the BR-host infecting type. Our previous studies on different weed hosts of TuMV divided Iranian isolates into [B], [B(R)], and BR-infecting host types and showed that the TuMV isolates were distinct in biological characterization (Farzadfar and Pourrahim 2014). Using ELISA, none of the samples showed positive reactions with Cauliflower mosaic virus- and Cucumber mosaic virus-specific antibodies. On the basis of sequences flanking the CP gene in the complete genome sequences of two Iranian isolates (AB440238 and AB440239), forward TuMU1 (nt 8576–8601) and reverse TuMD2 (nt 9784–9762) primers were used for the amplification of the complete CP gene by RT-PCR (Farzadfar and Pourrahim 2014). Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen) and cDNA synthesis was carried out using M-MuLV reverse transcription (Fermentas), according to the manufacturers’ instructions. PCR amplifications were performed by high fidelity Platinum Pfx DNA polymerase (Invitrogen). A DNA product of the expected size (∼1.2 kb) was amplified from RNA extracts obtained from weed samples by RT-PCR. The complete CP gene nucleotide sequence of Iranian A. petiolata isolate was determined and shown to be 864 nt long with 99% nt identity to IRNAT1 isolate (KF040490) belonging to Asian BR phylogenetic group. In Iran, brassica crops are usually sown in spring and autumn and they mature in summer and winter, respectively. Thus, the spring-sown crops may act as an inoculum source for the second brassica crop in the same region. Natural infection of TuMV on A. petiolata has been previously reported from Italy (Lisa and Lovisolod 1976) and Canada (Stobbs and van Schagen 1987). This is the first report of TuMV occurrence on A. petiolata in Iran. Information on the natural weed infection will help to better understand TuMV epidemiology and to develop a successful management program for reducing the impact of this disease. © 2017, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.

Hajiyusef T.,Islamic Azad University at Varamin | Shahraeen N.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Maleki M.,Islamic Azad University at Varamin
Journal of Plant Protection Research | Year: 2017

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA) tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV) as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5) isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran) (IR-Nor) had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses) associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region. © 2017 Tara Hajiyusef et al., published by De Gruyter Open 2017.

Dashtbozorgi Z.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Ramezani M.K.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Waqif-Husain S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran
Analytical Methods | Year: 2013

A multiclass and multi-residue method was optimized and validated for analysis of 19 pesticides of 16 chemical classes in greenhouse cucumber and tomato followed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In this study a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique was applied for extraction and pre-concentration of pesticide residues from QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extracts. The DLLME method was carried out using carbon tetrachloride as the extraction solvent and QuEChERS extract as the dispersive solvent. The main parameters affecting DLLME efficiency including the type and volume of extraction solvent and the volume of dispersive solvent and salt addition were optimized for the proposed method. To validate this developed method, recovery studies were carried out at two concentration levels, yielding mean recovery rates in the range of 86 to 104% with relative standard deviations below 12%. Good linearity and precision, with relative standard deviations generally below 10%, were obtained for all 19 pesticides. The method limits of detection (LOD) between 3.4 and 10.4 μg kg-1 and method limits of quantification (LOQ) in the range of 11.2-34.5 μg kg-1 were obtained for the proposed method. Recovery rates and method LODs and LOQs of the validated method were compared with those of the routine QuEChERS method and results indicated the efficiency of the proposed method for routine analysis of 19 pesticide residues in cucumber and tomato. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Alipanah H.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Baixeras J.,University of Valencia
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

Hedya tritofa, new species, is described and illustrated based on eleven males and five females collected in northern Iran (Gilan, Mazandaran, and Golestan provinces). Morphology and diagnostic characters of Hedya Hübner, 1825, Metendothenia Diakonoff, 1973, the Olethreutes group of genera, and the Neopotamia group of genera are discussed. We propose the resurrection of the combinations Hedya atropunctana (Zetterstedt, 1840), revised status, and H. separatana (Kearfott, 1907), revised status, and the new combination H. inouei (Kawabe, 1987). Copyright © 2011 Magnolia Press.

Alipanah H.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Gielis C.,Mr. Haafkensstraat
SHILAP Revista de lepidopterologia | Year: 2010

Twenty-seven species of the two tribes Platyptiliini and Exelastini are listed. The genus Exelastis and the following species are reported from Iran for the first time: Platyptilia calodactyla ([Denis & Schiffermüller]), P. nemoralis Zeller, P. farfarellus Zeller, Gillmeria armeniaca (Zagulajev), G. pallidactyla (Haworth), G. ochrodactyla ([Denis & Schiffermüller]), Stenoptilia zophodactylus (Duponchel), S. lucasi Arenberger, Paraplatyptilia metzneri (Zeller), M. asiatica (Rebel) and Exelastis atomosa (Walsingham).

Ebrahimi E.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Carpenter J.M.,American Museum of Natural History
Zoology in the Middle East | Year: 2012

Two species of hornets are present in Iran: Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, has a widespread distribution in most parts of Iran, except for the Caspian coast in northern Iran, but V. crabro Linnaeus, 1758, is present only on the Caspian coast. The ambiguity regarding these two species in Iran, their distribution patterns, diagnoses and agricultural aspects are discussed. © Kasparek Verlag, Heidelberg.

Pourrahim R.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Farzadfar S.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP
Journal of Phytopathology | Year: 2016

Samples of trumpet creeper (Campsis radicans) leaves showing mottling and mosaic were collected from plants growing in a private garden in Tehran province, Iran, in 2012. Symptomatic leaf samples were tested for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Peanut stunt virus (PSV) infection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using specific antibodies. None of the samples were positive for CMV and PSV; however, all reacted positively with that of AMV antiserum. In biological assay, systemic infection was found on Datura stramonium, Nicotiana tabacum cvs., White Burley, and Xanthi, 21 days postinoculation (DPI), while necrotic local lesions were obtained following inoculation of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata within three to four DPI. Using a pair of primers specific for AMV, a DNA fragment of 880 bp was RT-PCR-amplified. Analysis of the sequences revealed the presence of 657 nucleotides of AMV complete coat protein (CP) gene (translating 218 amino acid residues). Phylogenetic analysis using neighbour-joining (NJ) method clustered AMV isolates into two main types and the IRN-Tru (GenBank Accession No. JX865593) isolate fell into type I. Pairwise nucleotide distances also confirmed two main types with the highest and lowest similarities for type I and II, respectively. The association of AMV with mosaic disease of C. radicans represents the first record from the world. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Marzban R.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP
Journal of Biopesticides | Year: 2012

Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticide has been widely used on crops worldwide to replace chemical pesticides. B. thuringiensis production by solid-state fermentation requires less capital investment and modest technical skills. The method is often considered unsuitable for growth of aerobic organisms. However, optimization of Bt production using solid-state fermentation can effectively contribute to promote use of this bacterium in insect pest management programs. Research into suitable nutrient concentrations of different media and characteristics of bacterial growth on these has enabled use of several agricultural or industrial by-products for mass production of several Bt strains. These materials include wheat bran, rice bran, rice crumb, and remaining barley from feeding of Sitotroga serealella. Wheat bran was the best of media for production of B. thuringiensis. ©JBiopest.

Baniameri V.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP | Cheraghian A.,Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection IRIPP
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2012

In Iran, the tomato growing area is about 150 000 ha, mostly located in the south of the country. The Iranian Plant Protection Organization and inspection service in Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection (IRIPP) prepared a monitoring program for this pest in 2009 and 2010. A technical guideline was issued and distributed among PPO inspectors. For the first time in November 2010, samples were collected by Uromiyeh PPO on tomato from Uromiyeh in Azarbaijan province in North West Iran. The specimens found in these samples were identified as Tuta absoluta. Three months later in January 2011, pheromone traps were placed in tomato growing areas in Borazjan, Busher province, to detect and monitor this pest. T. absoluta was identified, based on adult morphology and on male genitalia from moths collected in 5 of these traps during January 2011. More pheromone traps were put into place covering the entire tomato growing area throughout the country. As of June 2011, the pest was detected in 24 different locations. This is the first report of T. absoluta in Iran. T. absoluta is a very serious pest for tomato, and an outbreak of this pest is expected during the crop cycle in autumn and winter 2011-2012 in the south of Iran. Thus, based on experiences in other countries an IPM program according to available tools and materials was developed. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 OEPP/EPPO.

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