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Sadeghifard N.,Ilam University | Rasaei S.Z.,Islamic Azad University at Qom | Ghafourian S.,Ilam University | Zolfaghary M.R.,Islamic Azad University at Qom | And 5 more authors.
Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health | Year: 2012

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, is an opportunistic pathogen, which causes various serious diseases in humans and animals. The aims of this study were to evaluate of the presence of genomic island PAPI-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Reference Laboratory of Ilam, Milad Hospital and Emam Khomeini Hospital, Iran and to study the frequency of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among isolates. Forty-eight clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were obtained during April to September 2010, and were evaluated for ESBLs by screening and confirmatory disk diffusion methods and PAPI-1 by PCR. Fifteen of 48 P. aeruginosa isolates were positive for ESBLs and 17 isolates positive for PAPI-1. This was first study of the prevalence of PAPI-1 in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in Iran, showing that most of PAPI-1 positive strains had high levels of antibiotic resistance and produced ESBLs.

Ghafourian S.,Ilam University | Ghafourian S.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohebi R.,Ilam University | Sekawi Z.,University Putra Malaysia | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents | Year: 2012

Carbapenems are the most potent beta-lactam agents with a broad-spectrum activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. They are stable in the presence of penicillinases and cephalosporinases. This study was focused on frequency of metallo beta- lactamase (MBL) among Pesudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated in patients with urinary tract infection, effect of tannin against PA positive strains which produced blaVIM or blaIMP and both of these genes (Species). Detection of MBL was performed by phonotypic and genotypic methods. Tannin extract was tested against P. aeruginosa producing MBL. During the study period, 240 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified. Among them 64 (26.6%) isolates were imipenem non-susceptible and confirmed by imipenem/EDTA. Our results revealed that the growth of blaVIM positive P. aeruginosa inhibited at 15μg/ml concentration. The experiment repeated for blaIMP-positive P. aeruginosa and P. aeruginosa which harbored blaIMP and blaVIM, the results showed 35μg/ml was the best concentration for inhibition of P. aeruginosa-positive blaIMP and also P. aeruginosa blaIMP and blaVIM. In conclusion, tannin was effective against P. aeruginosa producing blaVIM and blaIMP and both of them so it can be substituted with common antibiotics. The result showed significantly P. aeruginosa-harbored blaIMP was more responsible for imipenem resistance than P. aeruginosa-positive blaVIM. Interestingly, tannin was more effective against MBL - P. aeruginosa in comparison with current antibiotics. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s.

Ranjbar R.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | Pourshafie M.R.,Institute Pasture of Iran | Soltan-Dallal M.M.,University of Tehran | Rahbar M.,Iranian Reference Health Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Shigellosis as a global human health problem is more severe than other forms of gastroenteritis and causes over a million deaths in developing countries worldwide annually. Fatality due to shigellosis is usually due to dehydration and two-third of fatalities are seen among children. The aim of current study was to describe fatal cases of shigellosis due to infection with Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Patients and methods: We investigated the fatal cases of shigellosis among all children with acute diarrhea admitted to Children's Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. Bacterial isolation and identification was achieved according to standard bacteriological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, plasmid profiling and ribotyping were performed to investigate the clonal relationship among the isolates. Results: Among 1200 children with acute diarrhea, 140(12.7%) cases had shigellosis. Of these, three patients died. No signs of severe dehydration were observed among the fatal cases. The symptoms were not improved following antibiotic therapy and all three cases died after 24 h of hospitalization despite receiving intensive treatments. Stool cultures yielded S. flexneri and S. sonnei for one and two cases, respectively. The isolates were resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. S. sonnei strains were further studied and showed a single pattern of antibiotic susceptibility and ribotyping. Conclusion: Mortality due to species other than S. dysenteriae is rare, however, in current study we found S. sonnei and S. flexneri as the cause of fatality among pediatric patients during the study. ©2010 IDTMRC, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center.

Ranjbar R.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | Farshad S.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Rahbar M.,Iranian Reference Health Laboratories | Safiri Z.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University | And 2 more authors.
Iranian Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Background: Shigellosis is one of the major causes of morbidity in children with diarrhea in Iran. Integrons play an important role in the evolution and dissemination of multidrug resistance in gram-negative bacteria. The occurrence of integrons among Shigella spp. is frequently reported throughout the world. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of class 2 integrons among the multi drug resistant S. sonnei isolated from Iranian children in 2005. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in two major pediatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Fecal specimens and rectal swab collected from patients were cultured and identified as Shigella by the conventional methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed according to the standard CLSI guideline. Multi-drug resistant isolates of S. sonnei were further examined for the presence of class 2 integron by PCR using specific primers. Amplicons were confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Results: A total of 83 multi-drug resistant S. sonnei strains were isolated. Of these, 45 (54%) exhibited a class 2 integron of 2.1 kbp, and 34 (41%) a class 2 integron of 1.3 kbp. Class 2 integrons were not detected in four isolates. Conclusion: The results showed an increased occurrence of class 2 integron carrying S. sonnei isolated from children in Tehran in 2005. ©2010 IDTMRC, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center.

Ghafourian S.,Ilam University | Ghafourian S.,University Putra Malaysia | Sekawi Z.,University Putra Malaysia | Neela V.,University Putra Malaysia | And 3 more authors.
Sao Paulo Medical Journal | Year: 2012

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Resistant bacteria are emerging worldwide as a threat to favorable outcomes from treating common infections in community and hospital settings. The present investigation was carried out to study the incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in patients with urinary tract infection in different seasons of the year, in order to determine the prevalence of the genes blaTEM, blaSHV and blaCTX-M, which are responsible for ESBL production among ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae, in three cities in Iran, and to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of K. pneumoniae in different seasons. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study carried out among patients with urinary tract infections in five hospitals in Iran. METHOD: Two hundred and eighty-eight clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae were collected between March 2007 and April 2008 from five hospitals in three cities in Iran. ESBLs were identified by phenotypic and genotypic methods. ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were evaluated against non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Genes coding for ESBLs (blaSHV, TEM and CTX-M) were screened. RESULTS: Among the 288 clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae, 37.7%, 46.7% and 15.6% were obtained from hospitals in Ilam, Tehran and Tabriz, respectively, of which 39.4%, 50.7% and 45.8% were ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae in Ilam, Milad and Emam Reza hospitals, respectively. CONCLUSION: According to the results from this study, resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is higher during the cold months than during the warm months.

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