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Mokhtassi-Bidgoli A.,Tarbiat Modares University | AghaAlikhani M.,Tarbiat Modares University | Nassiri-Mahallati M.,Ferdowsi University of Mashhad | Zand E.,Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products

Descurainia sophia (flixweed) is an annual weed widely distributed in cultivated crops, forage and rangelands throughout the world. This weed, in particular its seed, is used for food, medicinal and industrial purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of irrigation management and different application rates of nitrogen on morphological traits and yield components of this weed as a means of enhancing production and economic returns. A two-year field experiment was conducted in a semi-arid region in Iran during the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 growing seasons. The experiment was a split plot in a randomized complete block design with three replicates, with irrigation treatments as main plots and nitrogen rates as sub plots. The three irrigation regimes consisted of 0.1 maximum allowable depletion or deficiency (MAD) of available soil water (ASW), 0.2 MAD of ASW, 0.4 MAD of ASW in 2010 and 0.2 MAD of ASW, 0.4 MAD of ASW and 0.8 MAD of ASW in 2011. The plants were grown at three nitrogen rates of 0, 200, and 300kgNha-1. Generally there were significant increases in seed yield, biomass, straw yield, harvest index, number of siliques (pods) per plant, seed weight, plant height, time to maturity, water use efficiency, protein concentration in seed, straw N concentration, nitrogen uptakes and nitrogen harvest index each growing season by applying nitrogen at all irrigation treatments. There was a decreasing trend in number of plants per m2, nitrogen utilization efficiency and oil concentration with increasing nitrogen application under all the irrigation treatments. Seed yield response to irrigation treatments and N rates seemed to be more related to number of plants per m2 and number of siliques per plant. The highest seed yield was obtained at the plant population of 686plantsperm2. The results obtained here suggest that nitrogen application can improve the seed yield and seed quality of D. sophia grown under different irrigation regimes. Averaged over both years, the application of 300kgNha-1 under 0.2 MAD of ASW resulted in the highest revenue; 200kgNha-1 was not significantly different to 300kgNha-1. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Aminpanah H.,Islamic Azad University at Rasht | Sorooshzadeh A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Zand E.,Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute | Moumeni A.,Rice Research Institute in Mazandaran
Thai Journal of Agricultural Science

In order to reduce the butachlor application rate in low land rice fields using more competitive cultivars, a field experiment was conducted in Rice Research Station of Tonekabon in Iran. The layout of the experiment was a split plot, where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Main plots were the butachlor rates (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L ha-1) and subplots were two rice cultivars ('Line 843' and 'Khazar' cultivar, more and less competitive rice cultivars, respectively). Results showed that the highest grain yield for 'Line 843' was obtained at 2 L ha-1 butachlor application rate , while for khazar cultivar; the highest grain yield was abtained when 4 L ha-1 of butachlor was applied. Barnyardgrass biomass in 'Line 843' was decreased from 288.3 to 17.4 g m-2 as butachlor rate increased from 0 to 5 L ha-1, while barnyardgrass biomass in 'Khazar' was decreased from 291.5 to 44.5 g m-2 as butachlor application rate increased from 0 to 5 L ha-1. For both 'Khazar' and 'Line 843', herbicide efficacy was increased with increasing the butachlor application rate. The herbicide efficacy was higher for 'Line 843' compared to 'Khazar' cultivar in all levels of butachlor rate, except in 5 L ha-1. Therefore, these experiments demonstrated that the 'Line 843' was able to significantly reduce the application rate of butachlor. Source

Maham M.,Islamic Azad University | Kiarostami V.,Islamic Azad University at North Tehran | Waqif-Husain S.,Islamic Azad University at Tehran | Karami-Osboo R.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences | Mirabolfathy M.,Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute
Czech Journal of Food Sciences

A simple and economic procedure based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been applied to extract and pre-concentrate trace levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in malt beverage prior to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The method was based on the formation of fine droplets of a water-immiscible extraction solvent in the sample solution using a water-miscible disperser solvent. The influences of various parameters such as the type and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, centrifuging time, sonication time, and salt concentration on the extraction efficiency of ochratoxin A were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations for five replicates of 2 ng/ml of OTA were 3.4% as within-day and 6.2% as between-day precisions. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was 0.1 ng/ml and the mean recoveries of OTA from malt beverage samples at spiking levels of 0.5, 2, and 4 ng/ml were in the range of 104-108.2%. Source

Nadimi A.,Tarbiat Modares University | Kamali K.,Tarbiat Modares University | Arbabi M.,Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute | Abdoli F.,Guilan University
African Journal of Agricultural Research

Economically, the most important species are the polyphagous pest two-spotted spider mite called Tetranychus urticae Koch and the predaceous phytoseiid mite called Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot which is successfully used as biological control agent in a number of agricultural ecosystems. To evaluate the toxicity of the two current miticides (abamectin and fenpyroximate) on predatory mite P. persimilis, two persistence tests were carried out under laboratory conditions and with four replicates per treatment using commercial formulations at highest recommended field concentration, half concentration and quarter concentration. The control block was treated with water. Assessments of the phsytoseiid were performed on mortality, escape of predators up to 5 days after the adult stage and reproduction of female during the first 5 days of the adult stage. Total effects (E) of the miticides were determined on the phytoseiid by combining lethal (mortality) and sub-lethal effects (fecundity). Persistence is classified by considering E suggesting that all fenpyroximate treatments and three days old residues of abamectin treatments would be the least compatible with P. persimilis but ten days old residues of abamectin treatments were favorable towards P. persimilis. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

Mobinikhaledi A.,Arak University | Foroughifar N.,Arak University | Kalhor M.,Arak University | Mirabolfathy M.,Iranian Plant Protection Research Institute
Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry

(Chemical Equation Presented) A series of 5-arylidene derivatives 3a-k, as potential antifungal agents, were synthesized in good to high yields by the reaction of 2-benzimidazolylimino-4-thiazolidinone and corresponding aromatic aldehyde in a buffered medium. These compounds were evaluated for their antifungal activities against four agricultural fungi, Botrytis elliptica, Fusarium graminearum, Phytophthora nicotianae, and Rhizoctonia solani. Thereby, it was found that the compound 1 exhibits an antifungal effect against P. nicotianae and B. elliptica, comparable with carbendazim as a standard antifungal. Our results may provide some guidance for development of some novel benzimidazole-based antifungal lead structures. © 2009 HeteroCorporation. Source

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